tasya khila bhAho


harivamsha parva
ch 11

elimination of demon dundhu



janamejaya uvAca- janamejaya asked:

kathaM bahu-yuge kAle samatIte dvijottama |
na jarA revatIM prAptA raivataM ca kakudminam ||1-11-1
meruM gatasya vA tasya sharyAteH santatiH katham |
sthitA pR^ithivyAm adya api shrotum ichChAmi tattvataH ||1-11-2

"Oh, brahmana, you said many eras have lapsed when raivata returned from brahma's abode along with lady revati ... how is that raivata-kakudmi is not scourged by old age in that much of time... when raivata of sharyAti dynasty cut off earthly connections and went away to Mt. meru for ascesis, how is that kings of his dynasty alone is ruling the earth even today... what has happened to his brothers and nephews... all this I would like to listen in its factuality... 

vaishampAyana uvAca- vaishampAyana replied:

na jarA-kShut-pipAsA vA na mR^ityur bharatarSabha  |
R^itu-cakraM na bhavati brahma-loke sadA anagha || 1-11-3

"Neither aging, nor hunger, nor thirst, nor death is there in the abode of brahma... in fact, oh, bharata king janamejaya, the time itself is not cyclic in there...

Hunger leads to aging and aging to death. These factors are caused by the fire in stomach - jaThara-agni, which in turn is stimulated by the solar energy. When the sun is powerless in the abode of brahma, then the chain of kAla, agni, kShut, jara - time, stomachic or external fire, hunger, aging process etc will be absent.

kakudminaH tu taM lokaM  raivatasya gatasya ha |
hatA puNya-janaiH tAta rAkShasaiH sA kushasthalI || 1-11-4
tasya bhrAtR^i-shataM cha AsIt dhArmikasya mahAtmanaH |
tad vadhyamAnaM rakShobhiH dishaH prAdravat achyutam || 1-11-5
vidrutasya tu rAjendra tasya  bhrAtR^i-shatasya vai |
teShAM tu te bhaya-AkrAntAH kShatriyAH tatra tatra ha ||1-11-6
anvavAyastu sumahAn tatra tatra vishAmpate |
yeShAm ete mahArAja sharyAtA iti vishrutAH || 1-11-7
kShatriyA bharatashreShTha dikShu sarvAsu dhArmikAH |
sarvashaH parvata gaNAn praviShTAH kuru-nanadana|| 1-11-8

When raivata-kakudmi went to the abode of brahma, rAkshasA-s and puNya-janA-s, i.e., yakshA-s, have devastated his capital kusha-sthali together with his hundred brothers... while rAkshasA-s are devastating thus, some of his kith and kin have fled in all directions seeking safe haven here and there... those fugitive kshatriya-s lived here and there, even making the mountain-caves as their hideaway, to lie low in the scare of rAkshasA-s... but wherever they are, their progeny increased there, and thus they all came to be known as the legatees of sharyAti...   

nAbhAga ariShTa putrau dvau vaishyau brAhmaNatAM gatau |
karUShasya tu kArUShAH kShatriyA yuddha-durmadAH || 1-11-9

The son of nAbhaga and the son of ariShTa, both being vaishya-s have turned up as brAhmaNa-s, and the sons of kArUSha have emerged as kshatriya heroes indomitable in battlefields...

 prAMshoH ekaH abhavat putraH prajAtiH iti naH shrutam |
pR^iShadhro hiMsayitvA tu guroH gAM janamejaya | 1-11-10
shApAt shUdratvam Apanno nava ete parikIrtitAH |
vaivasvatasya tanayA manoH vai bharatarShabha || 1-11-11

We have heard that the sixth son of prajApati-manu, namely prAnshu, had a son named prajAti... and another son of manu, namely pR^iShadhra, or pR^iShadyu, is subjected to become a vermin, because he hurt the cow of his mentor and that mentor cursed him to become a vermin... thus, oh, best of bharata-s, so far I have recounted the legends of nine sons of manu...

kShuvataH cha manoH tAta ikShvAkuH abhavat sutaH |
tasya putra-shataM tu AsIt ikShvAkoH bhUri-dakShiNam || 1-11-12

When manu-prajApati sneezed - kSutavAn - then emperor ikShvAku emerged out of it, and this ikshvAku has got hundred sons who are all famous for abundant charities...

teShAM vikukShiH jyeShThaH tu vikukShitvAt ayodhatAm |
prAptaH parama-dharmaj~naH saH ayodhya adhipatiH prabhuH || 1-11-13
shakuni pramukhAH tasya putrAH pa~nchAshat uttamAH |
uttarA-patha-desha-sthA rakShitAro mahIpate | 1-11-14

Among those hundred sons of king ikShvAku, vikukShi is the eldest one... because he has very broad chest of a warrior - vi kukshi - he has become - ayodhya - an unassailable warrior - and he became the king of ayodhya... this highly virtuous vikukshi has got fifty best sons starting from prince shakuni et al... staying in the northern area this prince shakuni and one of his brothers righteously protected the northern provinces of kingdom...

 chatvAriMshat atha aShTau cha dakShiNasyAM tathA dishi |
shashAda pramukhAH cha anye rakShitAro vishAMpate | 1-11-15

Rest of the forty-eight princess together with their father shashAda, a nick name for vikukshi, have been safeguarding southern provinces...

vikukshi is also called shashAda, shahinam atti - an eater of a rabbit. How and why is explained in the following verses.

 ikShvAkuH tu vikukShiH vai aShTakAyAm atha Adishat |
mAMsam Anaya shrAddha-arthaM mR^igAn hatvA mahAbala  || 1-11-16

Once king ikshvAku has ordered his son vikukshi to fetch meat by hunting animals for a ritual towards manes called aSTaka shrAddham...  

shrAddha-karmaNi cha uddiShTa akR^ite shrAddha-karmaNi |
bhakShayitvA shashaM tAta shashAdo mR^igayAM gataH || 1-11-17

Accordingly vikukshi went on a hunting game, but firstly he felled a rabbit, barbecued, and ate it... thus, when he is on the errand to fetch paraphernalia of the ritual, he utilised some for his own sake... later he felled some more animals and brought meat for the ritual of manes, whereby the meat he brought has become defiled, because he fetched the offertory after satiating his own stomach... thus he has acquired a nickname shashAda...

 Will it be nice to offer a crumb to gods / manes after consuming a bellyful meal, or before it? 'God give us our daily bread' is a different song. Having received that daily bread is it not necessary to say 'god, you gave us our daily bread... this actually is yours... come, you have it first as our token offertory...' Such a saying is called nivedana, whereby that offertory becomes naivedyam... and when we offer thus, and feel that god has partaken in it, then the same offertory suddenly becomes prasAdam; pra+sAdam= a sanctified, eatable. This Sanskrit word sAdam is still surviving in Tamil for food in general. In either case god in the sculpture / laminated photo will not come live to eat away all our eatables. But such an offering shows our selflessness towards the 'thing' in that photo or sculpture.

If the saying "saucers are for cats and dogs..." is remembered, then once-bitten leavings equally become worthy to cats and dogs; but not to dignified humans. In Sanskrit such a food is called ucChiSTam ; Hindi - jhooTa; Marathi - ustha; Malayalam and Tamil, - echil; Telugu - engili, so on and so forth. In any case, it is not a case of contamination with the saliva of the person who bites it earlier, but it is the question of dignity. He who lives, or craves for crumbs, is a lowly person. What for we ask for a doggy-bag in a restaurant after finishing our dinner? Both the parties, the server and the served, know that it is a pretension to carry leftovers home, in the name of a dog, where they are actually used for themselves. Thus the once-bitten leftovers, ucChiSTa khAdya padArthA-s, are earmarked for dogs. Basically, food prepared three hours prior to its consuming is unfit to be taken, then where is the question of consuming, or even touching half-nibbled food items?

yAta yAmaM gatarasaM puuti paryushhita.n cha yat.h .
uch{}chhishhTamapi chAmedhyaM bhojanaM tAmasapriyam.h .. 17\.10..

And there is foul food- kept from over-night, / Savourless, filthy, which the foul will eat,
A feast of rottenness, meet for the lips / Of such as love the "Darkness." - E Arnold

Foods prepared more than three hours before being eaten, - yAta yAmam; food that is tasteless, decomposed, and putrid, and food consisting of remnants - ucChiSTam;  and untouchable things is dear to those in the mode of darkness. (Bhagavad-Gita 17.10)

In virATa parva of mbh draupadi puts a condition to sudeShNa as below, about such feeding on leftovers, while entering the service of king of virATa.

yo me na dadyAt ucchiSTam na ca pAdau pradhAvayet

"It is the wish of my Gandharva husbands that I should serve only such persons as will not give me to touch food already partaken of by another, or tell me to wash their feet..." mbh, virATa.

Here, this boy ikshvAku transgressed that maryAda - respect, of feeding manes firstly, thus he rendered the sacred offertory as a kind of one-bitten-secondary-food for manes.

HHW's vishNu purANa has many details of ashtaka shraddha.

Upon one of the days called Ashtaka Ikshwaku being desirous of celebrating ancestral obsequies, ordered Vikukshi to bring him flesh suitable for the offering. The prince accordingly went into the forest, and killed many deer, and other wild animals, for the celebration. Being weary with the chase, and being hungered, he sat down, and ate a hare; after which, being refreshed, he carried the rest of the game to his father. Vaśishtha, the family priest of the house of Ikshwaku, was summoned to consecrate the food; but he declared that it was impure, in consequence of Vikukshi's having eaten a hare from amongst it (making it thus, as it were, the residue of his meal). Vikukshi was in consequence abandoned by his offended father, and the epithet Śaśada (hare-eater) was affixed to him by the Guru. On the death of Ikshwaku, the dominion of the earth descended to Śaśada -- vishnu purANa, HHW. 

 ikShvAkuNA parityakto vasiShTha vachanAt prabhuH |
ikShvAkau saMsthite tAta shashAdaH puram Avasat || 1 -11-18

But, sage vasiShTha noticing that vikukshi brought an unbefitting food for manes, reported the same to king ikshvAku, and king ikshvAku rusticated vikukshi from the capital for this insolent act, whereby shashAda , alias vikukshi, had to re-enter the capital only after the demise of his father ikshvAku... whereupon vikukshi became the king of ayodhya...

 saMsthite= mR^ite = when demised.

 shashAdasya tu dAyAdaH kakutstho nAma vIryavAn |
indrasya vR^iSha bhUtasya kakutstho ajayat asurAn || 1-11-19
pUrvaM deva-asure yuddhe kakutsthastena hi smR^itaH |

The son of shashAda, alias vikukshi, is the highly valiant kakutstha... we hear that kakutstha strode on the hump of a bull in certain conflict of gods and demons, where that bull is none other than indra in disguise of a bull, and thus he acquired appellation of kakutstha...

kakud+stha= kakutstha; kakud= hump on the back of bull; stha= staying there - mounting the bull;

HHW's viShNu purANa has got simiular running of this episode in its chapter II. There this account is like this:

In the Treta age a violent war broke out between the gods and the Asuras, in which the former were vanquished. They consequently had recourse to Vishńu for assistance, and propitiated him by their adorations. The eternal ruler of the universe, Narayana, had compassion upon them, and said, "What you desire is known unto me. Hear how your wishes shall be fulfilled. There is an illustrious prince named Puranjaya, the son of a royal sage; into his person I will infuse a portion of myself, and having descended upon earth I will in his person subdue all your enemies. Do you therefore endeavour to secure the aid of Puranjaya for the destruction of your foes." Acknowledging with reverence the kindness of the deity, the immortals quitted his presence, and repaired to Puranjaya, whom they thus addressed: "Most renowned Kshatriya, we have come to thee to solicit thy alliance against our enemies: it will not become thee to disappoint our hopes." The prince replied, "Let this your Indra, the monarch of the spheres, the god of a hundred sacrifices, consent to carry me upon his shoulders, and I will wage battle with your adversaries as your ally." The gods and Indra readily answered, "So be it;" and the latter assuming the shape of a bull, the prince mounted upon his shoulder. Being then filled with delight, and invigorated by the power of the eternal ruler of all movable and immovable things, he destroyed in the battle that ensued all the enemies of the gods; and because he annihilated the demon host whilst seated upon the shoulder (or the hump, kakud ) of the bull, he thence obtained the appellation Kakutstha (seated on the hump).

kavi kAliDas adopts this in raghuvamsham and says, because of his riding a bull, kakutshta became shiva-like, pinAki-lIla, and eliminated demons.

mahendramAsthAya mahokSharuupa.m  yassa.myati prAptapinAkiliilaH |
 cakAra bANairasurA~NganAnA.m gaNDasthaliiH proShitapatrarekhAH || r.v. 6-72

"Once Indra assumed the form of a great bull and this Kakutstha bestrode on the hump of that bull. And Kakutstha attaining the dexterity of Shiva while riding the bull made the pretty cheeks of Asura females bare of ornamental designs with his arrows...

anenAH tu kakutsthasya pR^ithur AnenasaH smR^itaH || 1-11-20
viShTarAshvaH pR^ithoH putraH tasmAt ArdraH tu ajAyata |
Ardrasya yuvanAshvaH tu shrAvastasya tu chAtmajaH || 1-11-21
jaj~ne shrAvastako rAjA shrAvastI yena nirmitA |
shrAvastasya tu dAyAdo bR^ihadashvo mahayashAH || 1-11-22

kakutstha got anena as his son; from him forward the lineal descent of princess is like this : anenapR^ithuviShTara-ashva ArdrayuvanAshva shrAva, or shrAstaka. This shrAvasta is the builder of shrAvasti city, which is why it is named after him. And bR^ihadashva is the son of shrAsta...

kuvalAshvaH sutaH tasya rAjA parama-dhArmikaH |
yaH sa dhundhu vadhAt rAjA dhundhu-mAratvam AgataH || 1-11-23

His son, namely bR^ihadashva's son, is kuvalAshva who is a highly righteous prince, and he acquired nom de guerre, dundhu-mAra, as he eliminated a demon named dundhu...

janamejaya uvAcha - janamejaya asked:

dhundhoH vadham ahaM brahman shrotum ichChAmi tattvataH |
yat arthaM kuvalAshvaH san dhundhumAratvam AgataH || 1-11-24

"Oh, brahman, I would like to listen vividly about the elimination of demon dundhu... what for kuvalAshva has got the title of 'the eliminator of dundhu...'

vaishampAyana uvAcha - vaishampAyana replied:

kuvalAshvasya putrANAM shatam uttama dhanvinAm |
sarve vidyAsu niShNAtA balavanto durAsadAH || 1-11-25
babhUvur dhArmikAH sarve yajvAno bhUri-dakShiNAH |
kuvalAshvaM sutaM rAjye bR^ihadashvo nyayojayat || 1-11-26
putra-sa~NkrAmita-shrIH tu vanaM rAjA samAvishat |
tam utta~Nko atha vipra-rShiH prayAntaM pratya-vArayat || 1-11-27

kuvalAshva begot hundred sons... and when those princes have become great archers, experts in scriptures, mighty, unassailable, righteous, and true ritualists and lavish donors, then kuvalAshva's father bR^ihadashva enthroned kuvalAshva in ayodhya... thus, when his son kuvalAshva derived the glory of ayodhya kingdom, bR^ihadashva set forth for woods to undertake ascesis... but when he set out, a sage of higher order, namely sage uttanka, approached bR^ihadashva and said to him...

utta~Nka uvAcha - sage uttanka said to bR^ihadashva:

bhavatA rakShaNaM kAryaM tat tAvat kartum arhasi |
nir-udvignaH tapaH chartuM na hi shaknoShi pArthiva || 1-11-28

"Protection is your primary duty and you have to do that much... oh, king, you cannot undertake ascesis unperturbedly...  

tvayA hi pR^ithivI rAjan rakShyamaNA mahAtmanA |
bhaviShyati nir-udvignA na araNyaM gantum arhasi || 1-11-29

This earth remains imperturbable if only protected by a great soul like you... hence it is inapt of you to proceed to forests...

pAlane hi mahAn dharmaH prajAnAm iha dR^ishyate |
na tathA dR^ishyate.araNye mA te abhUt buddhiH IdR^ishI  || 1-11-30
IdR^isho na hi rAjendra dharmaH kvachana dR^ishyate |
prajAnAM pAlane yo vai purA rAjarShibhiH kR^itaH |
rakShitavyAH prajA rAj~nA tAH tvaM rakShitum arhasi || 1-11-31

It is evident that governing people well is dharma... as such let your mind uninclined towards forests... nowhere we see this kind of deflection from one's own dharma... sagely kings, say your ancestors, have always been protecting people... a king has to protect people, hence it will be apt of you to protect people...  

mama Ashrama samIpe hi sameShu maru dhanvasu |
samudro vAlukA pUrNa ujjAnaka iti shrutaH |

Near at my hermitage, there is a place on even land which at places is devoid of water - maruSu, maru bhuumi vat, like a crematorium; and at some places with skimpy water - dhanvasu, alpa udakeSu; but surrounded by ocean and dunes, and which is a well noted place for depopulation...

ujjanaka - janasya samuuho - jAnakam; tad rahitam ujjanakam; a depopulated place, because people fell prey to demon dundhu. ujjalake iti pAThe - jala samuuha varjitaH. The name janaka, the father of siita in Rmn, is to be comparable with this definition - meaning  janaka is the name of someone who lioved for people.

devatAnAm avadhyaH cha mahA-kAyo mahA-balaH || 1-11-32
antar bhUmi gataH tatra vAluka antarhito mahAn |
rAkShasasya madhoH putro dhundhu nAmA mahAsuraH |
shete loka-vinAshAya tapa AsthAya dAruNam || 1-11-33

There stays a great demon named dundhu, son of demon madhu, hiding under a huge sand dune... this unassailable demon with a gigantic physique is an unkillable entity even for gods... he stays there undertaking a horrible ascesis for the annihilation of world...

 saMvatsarasya paryante sa nishvAsaM pramu~nchati |
yadA tadA bhUshchalati sa shaila vana kAnanA || 1-11-34
tasya niHshvAsavAtena raja uddhUyate mahat |
Aditya-pathamAvR^itya saptAhaM bhUmi-kampanam || 1-11-35
sa-visphuli~NgaM sa-a~NgAraM sa dhUmam ati dAruNam |
tena tAta na shaknomi tasmin sthAtuM svaka Ashrame || 1-11-36

He exhales once in a year whereby whole earth trembles with its mountains, woods, and forests...  when he exhales thus, there will be an upheaval of massive dust-clouds which rise even to the path of sun, and in such a situation the earth trembles for a week... his sight emits sparks, ergo fire, ergo horrible smoke... ergo, it has become impossible for me to stay in my own hermitage at that place...  

taM mAraya mahAkAyaM lokAnAM hita-kAmyayA |
lokAH svasthA bhavanti adya tasmin vinihate asure || 1-11-37

Please see that this giant is eliminated for the welfare of world... the moment he is eliminated people will feel secure...  

tvaM hi tasya vadhAya ekaH samarthaH pR^ithivIpate |
viShNunA cha varo datto mahyaM pUrvayuge anagha || 1-11-38
yaH tvaM mahAsuraM raudraM haniShyasi mahAbalam |
tasya tvaM vara-dAnena teja ApyAyayiShyasi || 1-11-39

Oh, king, you alone are capable to eradicate that demon, because god viShNu gave me a boon, rather an indication, in previous era... then viShNu said to me, 'whenever the king of ayodhya eliminates that highly mighty and ferocious demon, that king gets a part of my resplendence...' hence you please eradicate this demon whereby you may obtain viShNu's resplendence, viShNu tejas...

na hi dhundhuH mahAtejAH tejasA - alpena shakyate |
nirdagdhuM pR^ithivIpAla sa hi varSha-shataiH api |
vIryaM hi sumahat tasya devaiH api durAsadam || 1-11-40

None with meagre capacity can eliminate that highly powerful demon dundhu, even in hundreds of years to come... that demon's might is so great even gods cannot assail him..." so said sage uttanka to king bR^ihadashva...

sa evam ukto rAjarShiH utta~Nkena mahAtmanA |
kuvalAshvaM sutaM prAdAttasmai dhundhu nivAraNe || 1-11-41 

When that noble souled great sage uttanka said in this way, then king bR^ihadashva presented his son kuvalAshva to that sage, for the mission of elimination-demon-dundhu.  

bR^ihadashva uvAcha - kuvalAshva said to sage uttanka

          bhagavan nyasta shastraH aham ayaM tu tanayo mama |
bhaviShyati dvijashreShTha dhundhumAro na saMshayaH || 1-11-42

"Oh, godly sage, I have laid down arms... but, here is my son kuvalAshva who is capable of eradicating that demon's menace... no doubt about it..." so said bR^ihadashva to sage uttanka.

sa taM vyAdishya tanayaM rAjarShiH dhundhu mAraNe |
jagAma parvatAyaiva  tapase saMshita-vrataH || 1-11-43

 And on ordering his son kuvalAshva to eliminate demon dundhu, that kingly sage bR^ihadashva went to mountains to undertake his vow of ascesis.

vaishampAyana uvAcha - vaishampAyana continued:             

kuvalAshvastu putrANAM shatena saha pArthivaH |
prAyAt utta~Nka sahito dhundhoH tasya vinigrahe || 1-11- 44

Accordingly kuvalAshva journeyed along with his hundred sons, led by sage uttanka, on the mission elimination-demon-dundhu.

tam Avishat tadA viShNuH bhagavAn tejasA prabhuH |
utta~Nkasya niyogAt vai lokAsya hita-kAmyayA || 1-11-45

Then the resplendence of god viShNu embraced kuvalAshva, as has been directed by sage uttanka, and for the welfare of worlds.

tasmin prayAte durdharShe divi shabdo mahAn abhUt |
eSha shrImAn avadhyaH adya dhundhumAro bhaviShyati || 1-11-46
 divyaiH gandhaiH cha  taM devAH samantAt samavAkiran |
deva-dundubhayaH cha api praNedur bharatarShabha || 1-11-47

When that unassailable king kuvalAshva set out, then there is a great voice-over in skies which said, 'this glorious man is inextirpable, thus, he becomes the eliminator of dundhu now... ' and saying so, the gods have strewn divine fragrances through divine flowers around him, and they even blared divine drums of triumph.    

sa gatvA jayatAM shreShThaH tanayaiH saha vIryavAn |
samudraM khAnayAmAsa vAluka-arNavam avyayam | 1-11-48
 nArAyaNena kauravya tejas ApyAyitaH sa vai |
babhUva sa mahAtejAH bhUyo  bala-samanvitaH || 1-11-49

Having proceeded to demon's place along with his hundred sons that best conqueror started digging the ocean together with expansive sand-dunes, to locate the demon hiding under dunes. He acquired this much force owing to the presence of the force of nArAyaNa, which entered him just now, only to reinforce his dynamism.  

tasya putraiH khanadbhiH tu vAluka antarhitaH tadA |
dhundhuH AsAdito rAjan disham AvR^itya pashchimAm || 1-11-50
mukha-jena agninA krodhAt lokAn udvartayann iva |
vAri susrAva vegena mahA-udadhiH iva udaye || 1-11-51
somasya bharatashreShTha dhArA uurmi kalilaM mahat |

While the king's sons are digging up the dunes, they have located dundhu, hiding under the dunes at a westerly direction, with his face emitting fire as if to destroy the world, while his exhale is making the great ocean tumultuous, as if that ocean is put to turmoil by the fortnightly fount of moonbeams.

tasya putra-shataM dagdhaM tribhiH UnaM tu rakShasA || 1-11-52
tataH sa rAjA kauravya rAkShasaM taM mahAbalam |
AsasAda mahAtejA dhun-dhuM dhundhu nibarhaNaH || 1-11-53
tasya vAri-mayaM vegam ApIya sa narAdhipaH |
yogI yogena vahniM cha shamayAmAsa vAriNA || 1-11-54
nihatya taM mahA-kAyaM balena udaka rAkShasam |
utta~NkaM darshayAmAsa kR^ita-karmA narAdhipaH || 1-11-55

That demon has burnt down all the sons of the king, excepting for three. Even then, that king's pursuit has not ceased. He chased the demon with a war-whoop, "dhuM... dhuM..." As with an exalted yogi swallowing wildfire, this king too drank the impetuous water of the ocean only to locate the demon. Having located that oceanic-water-demon, kuvalAshva has eliminated that mighty demon, and proved his mettle to sage uttanka.   

utta~NkaH tu varaM prAdAt tasmai rAj~ne mahAtmane |
dadau tasya akShayaM vittaM shatrubhiH cha aparAjayam || 1-11-56
dharme ratiM cha satataM svarga-vAsaM tatha akShayam |
putrANAM cha akShayAn lokAn svarge ye rakShasA hatAH || 1-11-57

When kuvalAshva has shown his fortitude to sage uttanka, that sage gave him boons for an undiminished wealth, invincibility, involvement in dharma, and an unmitigated dwelling in heaven. That sage uttanka has further blessed the ninety-seven sons of the king who fell dead owing demonic effect to have an unlessened stay in heavens.


iti shrImahAbhArate khilabhAge harivaMshe  harivaMshaparvaNi dhundhuvadhe
 ekAdasho.adhyAyaH |

Thus, this is the eleventh chapter narrating the elimination of demon dundhu,
 in harivamsham, the annexure of mahAbhArata. 



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verse-transliteration:  ks ramachandran
< ramachandran_ksr @ >
verse-rendition advisor : gilles schaufelberger
 < schaufel @ >
page maintained by : Harindranath Avaroth :
<  harindranath_a @ >
translation : desiraju hanumanta rao
< desirajuhrao @
E&OE - content is subject to revision : dated 27-7-07