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mahAbhAratam
tasya khila bhAho

harivamsham

harivamsha parva
ch 18

 pitR^ikalpaH  - 2
Institution of fatherly gods

 

  --o)0(o--  

mArkaNDeya uvAcha - mArkaNDeya continued

ityukto.ahaM bhagavatA deva-devena bhAsvatA |
sanatkumAreNa punaH pR^iShTavAn devam avyayam || 1-18-1
saMdeham amara-shreShThaM bhagavantam arindamam |
nibodha tat me gA~Ngeya nikhilaM sarvam AditaH || 1-18-2

"When sanat-kumAra said like that to me I again asked him for further details... all that from beginning, oh, gAngeya bhIShma, you listen from me..." Thus sage mArkanDeya said to bhIShma.

kiyantaH vai pitR^i-gaNAH kasmin loke pratiShThitAH |
vartante deva-pravarA devAnAM soma varddhanAH || 1-18-3

"How many observances of fatherly-gods are there, and where those enrichers of life-principle of gods are abiding..." Thus mArkanDeya is asking sanat-kumAra.

sanatkumAra uvAcha - sanatkumAra replied:

sapta ete yajatAM shreShTha svarge pitR^i-gaNAH smR^ItAH |
chatvAro mUrti-mantaH cha trayaH teShAm amUrtayaH || 1-18-4

Seven are the orders of fatherly-gods, out of which four orders comprise manifest manes - mUrtimanta devA-s; three with manes in unmanifest forms - amUrtimanta devA-s...

Four kinds of manes with divine manifestation are: sukala, angIrasa, susvadha, soma-pa; three kinds of manes without physique, subtler than sky, and who are able to enter even the womb of a super-microcosmic atom - paramANu udare api pravishanti - are: vairAjA-s, agniShvata-s, barhiShada-s.

 Firstly the groups without manifestation, formless fatherly-gods, are taken up for clarity, of whom vairAjA-s are being narrated.

Formless fatherly-gods I - vairAjA-s.

teShAM lokaM visargaM cha kirtayiShyAmi tat shR^iNu |
prabhAvaM cha mahattvaM cha vistareNa tapodhana || 1-18-5
dharma mUrti-dharAH teShAM trayo ye paramA gaNAH |
teShAM nAmAni lokAH cha kathayiShyAmi tachChR^iNu|| 1-18-6

First let us take up the threesome group without manifestation... these groups bear the body of dharma alone... so, I would like to narrate about their genesis, names, abodes, efficaciousness to you...

lokAH sanAtanA nAma yatra tiShThanti bhAsvarAH |
amUrtayaH pitR^igaNAH te vai putrAH prajApateH || 1-18-7
virAjasya dvijashreShTha vairAjA iti vishrutAH |
yajanti tAn deva gaNAH vidhi-dR^iShTena karmaNA || 1-18-8

The abodes of these three groups are called sanAtana, not meaning age old, but ever nascent... where atItam - past; anAgatam - future; vyavahitam - contiguity etc time factors are in their present only... these with subtlest possible bodies - bhAsvarAH - cin mAtra sharIrA-s - are the brainchildren of virAja prajApati and hence they are known as vairAja-s... and gods worship these groups according to procedures and scriptures...

ete vai yoga vibhraShTA lokAn prApya sanAtanAn |
punaH yuga-sahasrAnte jAyante brahmavAdinaH || 1-18-9
te tu prApya smR^itiM bhUyaH sA~NkhyaM yogam anuttamam |
yAnti yoga gatiM siddhAH punarAvR^itti durlabhAm || 1-18-10

They take rebirth after every kalpa, thousand eras, because their yoga - asceticism designed to amalgamate the soul with the universal spirit - will not make them to attain saguNa-brahma, unmanifest supreme soul, even though these manes dwell in endless worlds, formless, highly worshipped etc... They transmute again and again as brahma-vAdin-s, adherers of brahma, and ultimately they merge into the supreme soul...

ete syuH pitaraH tAta yoginAM yoga vardhanAH |
ApyAyayanti ye pUrvaM somaM yoga balena cha || 1-18-11
tasmAT shrAddhAni deyAni yoginAM tu visheShataH |
eSha vai prathamaH sargaH soma-pAnAM mahAtmanAm || 1-18-12

Because these yogis with their yogic power firstly enrich soma; where soma is the life-principle - soma pA - somam pAyayanti, vardhayanti iti soma-pA; first offertories are to be given to these yogis, especially... thus this is about the genesis of these fatherly gods that enrich soma...

Even women are entitled to offer offertories to manes. eSha stiyo api adhikAro sati shrAddham dadatyaH... They too are destined for the release from karmic cycle if they offer offertories to their manes. But, without involving womenfolk in the rigorous rituals, their participation is adjusted in sankalpa mantra saying 'mama saha kuTumbAnAm...' etc.

eteShAM mAnasI kanyA menA nAma mahA-gireH |
patnI himavataH shreShThA yasyA mainAka uchyate || 1-18-13
mainAkasya sutaH shrImAn krau~ncho nAma mahA-giriH |
parvata pravaraH putro nAnA ratna samanvitaH || 1-18-14

The brainchild of these formless manes is a damsel named mena who is the wife of great-mountain himavAn... their son is Mt. mainAka while a peaking mountain encrusted with numerous gemstones, namely Mt. krauncha, is the son of this Mt. mainAka...

Mt. mainAka is the famous winged mountain hidden undersea for fear of indra, but came up once to help hanuma when jumping over the sea.

tisraH kanyAH tu menAyAM janayAmAsa shaila-rAT |
aparNAm eka-parNAM cha tritIyAm eka-pATalAm || 1-18-15

The king of the mountains, namely Mt. himavAn, begot three daughters through lady mena. They are a-parNa, eka-parNa, and the third eka-pATala.

tapaH charantyaH su-mahat dushcharaM deva-dAnavaiH |
lokAn santApayAmAsuH tAH tisraH sthANU ja~NgamAn || 1-18-16

Undertaking a highly rigorous ascesis that is impossible either for gods or for demons, they started scorching all the sessile and mobile in all the worlds with the flare of their ascesis...

AhAram eka parNena ekaparNA samAcharat |
pATalA puShpam ekaM cha AdadhAu eka pATalA || 1-18-17
ekA tatra nirAhArA tAM mAtA pratyaShedhayat |
u mA iti niShedhantI mAtR^I snehena duHkhitA || 1-18-18

One girl subsisted on one leaf during ascesis, hence she is called eka-parNa; the other used to take one pATala flower, say some trumpet-flower, hence she is called eka-pATala; while the other used to take no food at all, hence she is called a-parNa. This aparNa is pArvati. Seeing the hardship of aparNa, her mother lady mena tried to forbid her from ascesis saying, u= oh; girl; ma= don't; 'don't undertake this hardship, my girl...' - but in vain...

sa tathA uktA tayA mAtrA devI duH-chara-chAriNI|
uma iti eva abhavat khyAtA triShu lokeShu sundarI || 1-18-19
tathaiva nAmnA teneha vishrutA yogadharmiNI |

Whether that girl apaNa refrained from her ascesis or not when implored by her mother addressing her as u mA.... that beautiful girl apaNa has acquired a legendary name uma renowned in all the worlds... 

etattu tri-kumArIkaM jagatsthAsyati bhArgava || 1- 18-20
tapaH sharIrAH tAH sarvAH tisro yoga-balAnvitAH |
sarvAH cha brahma-vAdinyaH sarvAH cha eva Urdhva-retasaH || 1-18-21

This is the legend of those three damsels who are the embodied ascesis, empowered with yogic prowess, brahma adherers, and the yogin-s f first order...

umA tAsAM variShThA cha jyeShThA cha varavarNinI |
mahA-yoga-bala-upetA mahA-devam upasthitA || 1-18-22

Of the three damsels uma is the eldest and foremost in possessing yogic prowess, and she is given to mahadeva, shiva, in marriage.

asitasya ekaparNA tu devalasya mahAtmanaH |
patnI dattA mahAbrahman yogAchAryAya dhImate || 1-18-23
jaigIShavyAya tu tathA viddhi tAm ekapATalAm |
ete chApi mahAbhAge yogAchAryAu upasthite || 1-18-24

ekaparNa is given in marriage to the highsouled intellectual and yoga-AchArya, namely asita devala; ekapATala is given to another yoga-AchArya named jaigISha... these two asita and jaigISha are the foremost teachers of yoga...

There is a reading difference in the names of asita and devala. Telugu version of errapraggaDa, one of the three authors of Telugu mahabharata, says in his translation of harivamsham that ekaparNa is married to asita and begot devala; ekapATala is married to jaigISha and begot shankha-likhita. Gita Press combines the names of asita and devala as one.

Formless fatherly-gods II - agniShvat-s.

lokAH somapadA nAma marIcheH yatra vai sutAH |
pitaro yatra vartante devAH tAn bhAvayanti uta || 1-18-25
agniShvAttA iti khyAtAH sarva eva amitaujasaH |

Next in the triad of formless manes is called the highly resplendent agniShvat-s; agniShu- agni karmAsu; AttA- gR^ihItAH - those that chanced in the ritual fire intended for manes. Their abode is called soma-pada, an abode for the children of mariachi prajApati, where gods venerate them.

eteShAM mAnasI kanyA achChodA nAma nimnagA || 1-18-26
achChodaM nAma vikhyAtaM saro yasyAH samutthitam |

Their brainchild is damsel named achChoda who later became a river with the same name, from which a vast lake with the same name - achChoda had emerged.

tayA na dR^iShTa pUrvAH te pitaraH tu kadAchana || 1-18-27
api amUrtAn atha pitR^In sA dadarsha shuchismitA |
saMbhUtA manasA teShAM pitR^In svAn na abhijAnatI || 1-18-28

She has not seen her fathers at anytime, but at certain time she took flight skyward to have their glimpse. Though she could visualize some celestials there, she could not perceive them because of their imperceptibility. 

vrIDitA tena duHkhena babhUva varavarNinI |
sA dR^iShTvA pitaraM vavre vasuM nAma antarikSha gam || 1-18-29
amAvasuH iti khyAtam AyoH putraM yashasvinam |
adrika apsarasA yuktaM vimAne adhiShThitaM divi || 1-18-30

That best complexioned damsel achChoda has then sighed for not spotting her parents. While she is still up in the air she saw glorious amavasu, the son of ayu, viz. parichara-vasu, who by then is going in an aircraft along with an apsarasa named adrika. Then achChoda went into a flight of fancy thinking, "how nice it would if this air-voyager, namely parichara-vasu, happens to be my father!"

sA tena vyabhichAreNa manasaH kAma-rUpiNI |
pitaraM prArthayitvA anyaM yoga-bhraShTA papAta ha || 1-18-31

Because of her subverted thinking on someone else as her father that whiz-maid immediately started falling from sky, because such a thinking itself is an incongruity in yogic discipline,

trINi apashyat vimAnAni patamAnA divaH chyutA |
trasa-reNu-pramANAni sA apashyat teShU tAn pitR^In || 1-18-32
su-sUkShmAn aparivyaktAn agnIn agnIShvau iva AhitAn |
trAyadhvam iti uvAcha ArtA patantI tAn avA~N-shirAH || 1-18-33

While falling from sky, upside down, she caught sight of an aircraft which is of the size of a flaw-speckle in a jewel, trasa-reNu; trasa [trAsa]= a flaw in a jewel; reNu= speck; in which there are three fatherly-gods, who are though imperceptible and tiniest of the tiny, are glowing like the irradiated ritual fire... Then she instantly yelled at them crying, "save me... save me..."

taiH uktA sA tu mA bhaiShIH iti vyomni vyavasthitA |
tataH prasAdayAmAsa tAn pitR^In dInayA girA || 1-18-34
UchuH te pitaraH kanyAM bhraShTa aishvaryAM vyatikramAt |

Those manes assuring her by saying, "mA bhaiShI.. mA bhaiShI... don't fear, don't fear..." have stopped her from falling. She who by now has become a fallen angel, standing in mid air then started to implore upon those manes about her ill-fate which too is now in mid-air. Then those manes pacified her by saying:  

bhraShTa-aishvaryA sva-doSheNa patasi tvaM shuchismite || 1-18-35
yaiH kriyante hi karmANi sharIraiH divi devataiH |
taiH eva tat karma phalaM prApnuvanti iha devatAH || 1-18-36
sadyaH phalanti karmANi devatve pretya mAnuShe |
tasmAt tvaM tapasaH putri pretya idaM prApsyase phalam || 1-18-37

Unlike humans who reap result of actions after their death, gods reap it while they are still with their bodies, whether those bodies are incorporeal or ethereal, or whatever... hence a curse, calamity, or scourge is instantaneous to gods... as such, you have to reap the result of your misthinking which mislaid you, because an angle is not supposed to misjudge...

iti uktA pitR^ibhiH sA tu pitR^In prAsAdayat svakAn |
dhyAtvA prasAdaM te chakruH tasyAH sarve anukampayA || 1-18-38
avashyaM bhAvinaM j~nAtvA te.artham UchuH tataH tu  tAm |

When fatherly gods have said thus to her, she piteously started to plead for her guiltlessness... and those fatherly gods have shown some mercy on her after giving a little thought to her problem. The said to her after looking into future:

asya rAj~no vasoH kanyA tvam apatyaM bhaviShyasi || 1-18-39
utpannasya pR^ithivyAM tu mAnuSheShu mahAtmanaH |
kanyA cha bhUtvA lokAn svAn punaH prApsyasi durlabhAn || 1-18-40
parAsharasya dAyAdaM tvaM putraM janayiShyasi |
sa vedam ekaM brahmarShIH chaturdhA vibhajiShyati || 1-18-41

"You have just now seen an air-voyager, isn't it... he is called uparichara-vasu... when he takes birth in human world, then you will become his daughter... while remaining a virgin you will deliver the son of sage parAshara, which son of yours, namely veda-vyAsa, will ramify veda canons... still remaining a virgin you will return to your own abode, that which is unachievable otherwise...

 mahAbhiShasya putrau dvau shantanoH kIrtivardhanau |
vichitravIryaM dharmaj~naM tathA chitrA~NgadaM shubham || 1-18-42
etAn utpAdya putrAn tvaM punaH lokAn avApsyasi |
vyatikramAt pitR^INAM cha janma prApsyasi kutsitam || 1-18-43

Later you will auspiciously give rise to two sons of mahAbhiSha, namely king shantanu; one boy will be the glorious vichitraviirya, while the other will be the righteous chitrA~Ngada; and later, on your begetting them you will return to your abode; thus you have to undergo this wretched life on earth because you sidestepped from the morals of manes...

asya eva rAj~naH kanyA tvam adrikAyAM bhaviShyasi |
aShTAviMshe bhavitrI tvaM dvApare matsya-yonijA || 1-18-44
evam uktvA tu dAsheyI jAtA satyavatI tadA |
matsya-yonau samutpannA rAj~naH tasya vasoH sutA || 1-18-45

You will become the daughter of that king vasu through lady adrika, whom you have just now seen along with uparichara-vasu on aircraft... all this happens in twenty-eight dwApara era... then you will emerge as the daughter of a fish, namely from this lady  adrika who by then transfigures as a fish..." So said the fatherly-gods to damsel achChoda and went their way.

Later, that damsel achChoda took birth as satyavathi, sired by uparichara-vasu, mothered by apsara-turned-fish, namely lady adrika. Then achChoda is called lady satyavathi, apart from her many other names like gandhavati, gandha kaalii, matsya gandhii, yojana gandhii, vaasavi, kalangani, daashanandini, daseyi, jhajhodari, and matsyodari, etc. Hence she is the daughter of a vasu, namely amavasu, or uparichara-vasu.

"Thus this is some account of second group of formless fatherly-gods..." sanat-kumAra continued to sage mArkanDeya. Next, barhiShada-s, third kind among the formless manes is being described.

A lengthy account about this achChoda/ satyavati is given at 10-47 mbTn, available on this webpage of mbh resources. Births of gods and demigods are not by parturition.

 Note: God is never born like an ordinary child. The popular impression that Vedavyasa was born and that too when Satyavati was a virgin is not correct. - Pt. k. t. panDurangi.

Formless fatherly-gods III - barhiShada-s.

vaibhrAjA nAma te lokA divi santi su-darshanAH |
yatra barhiShado nAma pitaro divi vishrutAH || 1-18-46
tAn vai devagaNAH sarve yakShagandharva rakShasAH |
nAgAH sarpAH suparNAshcha bhAvayanti amitaujasaH || 1-18-47

There are beautiful realms called vaibhrAja-realms where fatherly gods called barhiShada-s abide... them all the groups of gods, yakshaa-s, gandharvara-s, rakShasa-s,
nAga-s, including reptiles and birds adore..

ete putrA mahAtmAnaH pulastyasya prajApateH |
mahAtmAno mahAbhAgAH tejo-yuktAH tapasvinaH || 1-18-48

These vaibrAjA-s are the children of highsouled pulastya-prajApati, who all are highly fortunate, highly prosperous and highly resplendent beings...

eteShAM mAnasI kanyA pIvarI nAma vishrutA |
yogA cha yogi-patnI cha yogi-mAtA tathaiva cha || 1-18-49
 bhavitrI dvAparaM prApya yugaM dharmabhR^itAM varA |

Their brainchild will be a damsel named pIvari, which is just an epithet of that girl meaning she who is full of or abounding with; because she is really abounding with yogic schooling. She herself is a yogin, wife of a yogi, mother of a yogi. That righteous yogin will emerge when dwApara era approaches.

parAshara kula udbhUtaH shuko nAma mahAtapAH || 1-18 50
bhaviShyati yuge tasmin mahAyogI dvijarShabhaH |
vyAsAt araNyAM saMbhUto vidhUmaH agniH iva jvalan || 1-18-51
sa tasyAM pitR^i-kanyAyAM pIvaryAM janayiShyati |
kanyAM putrAn cha chaturo yoga-AchAryAn mahAbalAn || 1-18-52
kR^iShNaM gauraM prabhuM shaMbhuM kR^itvIM kanyAM tathaiva cha |
brahmadattasya jananIM mahiShIM tu aNuhasya cha || 1-18-53

In that dwApara era there will be an outstanding yogi named shuka... he emerges in the line of sage parAshara, and he who will be glowing like a smokeless fire takes birth in the ritual fire generated by veda-vyAsa by rubbing two wooden sticks to kindle ritual fire... on marrying this yogin damsel pIvari, that sage shuka will beget four sons and a daughter through her, who all will become the masters of yoga... they will be known as kR^iShNa, gaura, prabhu, and shaMbhu, while his daughter will be called as lady kR^itvi, also known as lady kIrtimati, which girl becomes the wife of a king called aNUhu, and begets brahmadatta, an epitome of yoga...

etAn utpAdya dharmAtmA yoga-AchAryAn mahAvratAn |
shrutvA sva janakAt dharmAn vyAsAt amita-buddhimAn || 1-18-54
mahAyogI tato gantA punaH avartinIM gatiM |
yat tat padam anudvignam avyayaM brahma shAshvatam || 1-18-55

Having generated these masters of yoga, having acquired the knowledge of dharma from his father vyAsa, that highly intellectual sage shuka journeys to the returnless higher world, namely the perishless, troubleless, and the eternal abode of brahma...  

amUrtimantaH pitaro dharma mUrti-dharA mune |
kathA yatra iyam utpannA vR^iShNi andhaka kula anvayA || 1-18-56

Thus this is the legend of three kinds of formless fatherly-gods, namely vairAjA-s, agniShvata-s, barhiShada-s, whose form itself is dharma, and who are adorable even to gods...  the clans of vR^iShNi and andhaka have emerged from these assemblages alone...

The second foot of the above verse, kathA yatra samutpannA vR^iShNyandhakakulAnvayA  - HV_13.49; and next foots in later verse, generally do not appear in some mms. With this line it can be construed that the characters of mbh have emerged out of formless fatherly gods.

traya ete mayA proktAsh caturo .anyAn nibodha me  /
yAn vakShyAmi dvijashreShTha mUrtimanto hi te smR^itAH  / : BORI

So far I have narrated about three groups of formless manes. Next, listen to the legend of four kinds of manes possessing divine forms, namely sukala, angIrasa, susvadha, soma-pa..., of which let us talk about sukala group first... "sanat-kumAra continued his narration.

sukAlA nAma pitaro vasiShThasya prajApateH |
niratA divi lokeShu jyotir bhAsiShu bhAsurAH |
sarva-kAma-samR^iddheShu dvijAH tAn bhAvayanti uta || 1-18-57

"There is a group of highly effulgent manes called su-kala abiding in an effulgent world called jyotir-bhAsam or jyotiShmantam... these are the descendants of vashiSTha-prajApati... brAhmaNa-s will generally adore them who can fulfil every cherished desire...

teShAM vai mAnasI kanyA gauH nAmnA  divi vishrutA |
tava eva vaMshe yA dattA  shukasya mahiShI priyA |
eka-shR^i~Nga iti vikhyAtA sAdhyAnAM kirtivardhinI || 1-18-58

There is a female brainchild of these fatherly gods with form, which girl is much known in celestial worlds by her name gau... she is given in marriage to shuka, where this shuka belongs, oh, mArkanDeya, to your lineage of sAdhyA-s, say brAhmaNa-s... this girl gau being an epitome of according renown, has enriched the renown of whole line of brAhmaNa-s... hence, this damsel gau has become famous with another name, called eka-shR^i~Nga... this is about manes with forms, called sukala-s...

sAdhyA-s are a kind of gods, foremost hosts to chant and popularise veda-s, obsolete with veda-s. But their collective name remained as an epithet to brahamaNa-s, because of the similarity of the function of chanting veda-s.

Here is a reading problem with the name of shuka. Elsewhere this name is read as shukra, the letter r being the difference. At 1-18-24 above, while telling about the sons of ekaparNa, ekapATala, harivamsham does not say about the progeny of aparNa, say pArvati. We are told somewhere else that shukra-AchArya, the mentor of demons, is kR^itrima putra, the artificial son of aparNa, or pArvati - shiva amsha sambhUta - and this damsel gau or eka-shR^i~Nga is the wife of that shukra-AchArya.

marIchi-garbhAn tAn lokAn samAshritya vyavasthitAH |
ye tu athA a~NgirasaH putrAH sAdhyaiH saMvardhitAH purA || 1-18-59
tAn kShatriya gaNAn tAta bhAvayanti phalArthinaH |
teShAM tu mAnasI kanyA yashodA nAma vishrutA || 1-18-60
patnI sA vishva-mahataH snuShA vai vR^iddha-sharmaNaH |
rAjarSheH jananI chApi dilIpasya mahAtmanaH || 1-18-61

Next, listen about second kind of manes with forms, called a~NgirasA-s, from among the four groups of manes with forms, namely sukala, angIrasa, susvadha, soma-pa...

a~NgirasA-s will be abiding in the womb of sunrays, namely solar sphere... once the sAdhyA gods have flourished with the help of these a~NgirasA-s... kshatriya races will be usually adoring them because kshatriya-s have a descent from sun, thus have an affinity with sun... the brainchild of these a~NgirasA-s is lady yashoda, who is the wife of vishva-mahat, thus the daughter-in-law of vR^iddha-sharma, and also the mother of the glorious sagely king dilIpa...

tasya yaj~ne purA gItA gAthAH prItaiH maharShibhiH |
tadA deva-yuge tAta vAji-medhe mahA-makhe || 1-18-62
agneH janma tathA shrutvA shANDilyasya mahAtmanaH |
dilIpaM yajamAnaM ye pashyanti susamAhitAH |
satyavantaM mahAtmAnaM te.api svarga jito narAH || 1-18-63

As usual with any other king, emperor dilIpa has also performed a great horse-ritual in the era of gods, which ritual is orchestrated by the sage descendant of shANDilaya gotra, the sons of ritual-fire... everybody who saw that ritual have sung the praise of dilIpa saying, 'this ritual is conducted in an excellent manner... not only dilIpa who is the yajamAna, the officiator of ritual, but those who just witnessed this ritual will also get the merit of taking final bath of ritual, avabR^itha snAnam, along with the officiator dilIpa... whereby one and all, whether they are the performers or just onlookers of the ritual, all will achieve heaven..." that is how dilIpa's performance of his duty as a king remained laudable...

susvadhA nAma pitaraH kardamasya prajApateH |
samutpannAH tu pulahAn mahAtmAno dvijarShabhAH || 1-18-64
lokeShu divi vartante kAma-geShu viha~NgamAH |
tAMshcha vaishya-gaNAn tAta bhAvayanti phalArthinaH || 1-18-65
teShAM vai mAnasI kanyA virajA nAma vishrutA |
yayAteH jananI brahman mahiShI nahuShasya cha || 1-18-66

Next, listen about third kind of manes with forms, called susvadha-s, from among the four groups of manes with forms, namely sukala, angIrasa, susvadha, soma-pa...

The ancestors of kardama-prajApati are the descendants of pulaha-prajApati, and these are the fatherly gods collectively termed as su-svadha-s... they are otherwise called as vasu-s also, and they will be flitting like birds in a heavenly abode called kAma-da... the fraternity of vaishya-s will be worshipping these fatherly gods su-svadha-s... the brainchild of this group of manes is lady vi-raja who is the mother of king yayAti and the wife of king nahuSha...

Perhaps M. A. Langlois' version might have had the extra foot cited at 1-18-56, kathA yatra samutpannA vR^iShNyandhakakulAnvayA at this place because he says: ... l'Úpuse de Nahucha, l'a´eule de l'illustre race des Vrishnis et des Andhacas... the ancestress from whom the famous breeds of Vrishnis and Andhacas have come up...

traya ete gaNAH proktAH chaturthaM tu nibodha me |
utpannA ye svadhAyAM te soma-pA vai kaveH sutAH || 1-18-67
hiraNyagarbhasya sutAH shUdrAH tAn bhAvayanti uta |
mAnasA nAma te lokA yatra tiShThanti te divi |

So far I have narrated about three kinds of manes with forms, now listen about fourth kind of manes with forms, called soma-pA-s, from among the foursome groups of manes with forms, namely sukala, angIrasa, susvadha, soma-pa...

Lady svadhA, the daughter of kavi - kaveH duhitAri - begot soma-pA-s, the manes with forms, and they abide in the celestial worlds called mAnasa... and those that have sprung from the yogic fire of hiraNyagarbha are called as shUdrA-s, who hold these manes, soma-pA-s, in high adoration...

teShAM vai mAnasI kanyA narmadA saritAM varA || 1-18-68
yA bhAvayati bhUtAni dakShiNA patha gAminI |
purukutsasya yA patnI trasaddasyoH janani api || 1-18-69

The brainchild of these manes is the damsel narmada, who is the best river that flows southward sanctifying one and all... she is the wife of purukutsa through whom she got a son called trasadas...  

teShAm atha abhyupagamAn manuH tAta yuge yuge |
pravartayati shrAddhAni naShTe dharme prajApatiH || 1-18-70
pitR^INAm Adi sargeNa sarveShAM dvijasattama |
tasmAt enaM sva-dharmeNa shrAddha-devaM vadanti vai|| 1-18-71

When dharma declines in era after era and results in eschewing of rituals aimed at manes dwindle, then manu-prajApati-s will be generating these fatherly gods from the start, only for the revival of dharma... therefore, by his very nature, sva-dharma, i.e., on his becoming the lord of fatherly gods - yama sarva shrAddha devata adhipatitva hetunA; yamaH pitR^iiNaam adhipatiH - shruti; god yama is called shrAddha-deva... because he leads the soul on its exit from mortal world till it is cleansed of sins... rather, with a guidance/punishment factors of a father...

 pitR^I smArAdhana phalam - fruits of beatifying manes

sarveShAM rAjataM pAtram atha vA rajata anvitam |
dattaM svadhAM purodhAya shrAddhaM prINAti vai pitR^In || 1-18-72

Among all, silverware is most suited in these rituals for manes for according water symbolically for feet-wash, mouth-wash, and for purificatory sipping - arghya, Achamana, kara-pAda prakshAlanAdi kriyA-s - or, at least vessels with the amalgam of silver... and manes will be pleased to receive offertories when given in this way with svadha-suffixed chant formulae...

Vedic chants have some formula suffixes, in which svahaa-kaara; vaShaT-kaara; hanta-kaara; svadhaa-kaara will be generally used. Chanting for gods will have svaaha-kaara - svaaha-ending - devebho svaahaa; hanta-kaaram - hanta-ending, when used to address humans, say guests etc - maanuShebhyo hanta; and svadhaa ending is directed towards manes - said below:

somasya ApyAyanaM kR^itvA agneH vaivasvatasya cha |
udagAyanam api agnau agni abhAve apsu vA punaH || 1-18-73

somas, agni, yama, these three gods are to be worshipped through ritual fire as said in somAya pitR^imate swadhA... namo agnaye kavyavAhanAya swadhA... namo yamAya a~NgIrase swadhA  namaH... in the absence of this is to be carried out in waters, at least...

Or, it is performable at least in the palms of brAhmaNa-s... because scripts say... a true brAhmaNa-s palms are as good as ritual fire... agni mukhA vai devAH... pANi mukhAH pitaraH...

pitR^In prINAti yo bhaktyA pitaraH prINayanti tam |
yat shanti pitaraH puShTiM prajAH cha vipulAH tathA || 1-18-74
svargam Arogyam eva atha yat anyat api cha Ipsitam |

He who trustfully worships manes will derive peacefulness, well-being, unending progeny, heaven, health, or whatever desired, from them...

deva-kAryAt api mune pitR^i-kAryaM vishiShyate || 1-18-75
devatAnAM hi pitaraH pUrvam ApyAyanaM smR^itam |
shIghra prasAdA hi akrodhA lokasya ApyAyanaM param || 1-18-76
sthira-prasAdAH cha sadA  tAt namasyasva bhArgava |

Prior even to rituals aimed at gods manes are to be beatified, because rituals towards manes are more important that the rituals towards gods... oh, mArkanDeya, pacification of fathers is primary because they endow beneficence, and that beneficence is more dependable... hence one has to worship his ancestors...

pitR^i-bhaktaH asi viprarShe mat bhaktaH cha visheShataH || 1-18-77
shreyaH te adya vidhAsyAmi pratyakShaM kuru tat svayam |
divyaM chakShuH sa vij~nAnaM pradishAmi cha te anagha || 1-18-78

Oh, mArkanDeya, you are a true devotee of your father, as well as mine, especially... hence, I am bestowing a gnostic eye to you so that you yourself can have a look at them...

gatim etAm apramatto mArkaNDeya nishAmaya |
na hi yoga-gatiH divyA pitR^INAM cha parA gatiH || 1-18-79
tvat vidhena api siddhena dR^ishyate mAMsa-chakShuShA |
sa evam uktvA devesho mAm upasthitam agrataH || 1-18-80
chakShuH dattvA sa vij~nAnaM devAnAm api durlabham |
jagAma gatim iShTAM vai dvitIyaH agniH iva jvalan || 1-18-81

You may carefully see the augustness of manes, and there is no other better way to achieve the end-in-view in the quadruple of dharma, artha, kAma, moksha, than the veneration of manes  ... none can see those fatherly-gods with fleshy eyes..." Saying so sanat-kumAra staying before me gave a gnostic vision which is an impossible thing to get even to gods, and made me to see the establishment of fatherly gods... while he went on his way like another glowing ritual fire...

tat nibodha kurushreShTha yat mayA AsIt nishAmitam |
prasAdAt tasya devasya durj~neyaM bhuvi mAnuShaiH || 1-18-82

"I have narrated to you, oh, bhIShma, whatever I have heard from that divine personality sanat-kumAra, which is otherwise impossible to know by humans on earth..." Thus sage mArkanDeya said to bhIShma.

--o)0(o--   

iti shrImahAbhArate khileShu harivaMshe harivaMshaparvaNi pitR^ikalpe aShTAdasho.adhyAyaH

Thus, this is the eighteenth chapter of first canto called harivamsha-parva, in harivamsha-purANa, the sequel of mahAbhArata, narrating the institution of fatherly-gods.

--o)0(o--  

 

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verse-transliteration:  ks ramachandran
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verse-rendition advisor : gilles schaufelberger
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page maintained by : Harindranath Avaroth :
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translation : desiraju hanumanta rao
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E&OE - content is subject to revision : dated 20-8-07