tasmin antarhite deve vachanAt tasya vai prabhoH |
chakShur divyaM sa vij~nAnaM prAdur AsIt tadA mama | 1-20-1
tato.ahaM tAn apashyaM vai brAhmaNAn kaushika AtmajAn |
Apageya kurukShetre yAn uvAcha vibhur mama || 1-20-2
"When that god sanat-kumAra vanished then by his grace a divine sight chanced on me while retaining consciousness about the present - bhavya vij~nAnaM - then, oh, bhIShma, I could see those seven brAhmaNA-s, the legatees of kaushika viz., who took rebirth near at kurukShetra, about whom my lord sanat-kumAra just now said to me...
brahmadatto abhavat rAjA yaH teShAM saptamo dvijaH |
pitR^i-varti iti vikhyAto nAmnA shIlena karmaNA || 1-20-3
shukasya kanyA kR^itvI taM janayAmAsa pArthivam |
aNuhAt pArthiva shreShThAt kAmpilye nagara uttame || 1-20-4
Of those seven brAhmaNA-s, the seventh one who is famous for his deeds and conduct, because he is true to his name pitR^i-varti, a father-devotee, later took birth as king brahmadatta, and became a best king of kAmpilya city... the daughter of shuka, lady kR^itvi, aka kIrti-mati, begot this brahmadatta through a king called aNuhu..." So said mArkanDeya to bhIShma.
yathovAcha mahAbhAgo mArkaNDeyo
tasya vaMsham ahaM rAjan kIrtayiShyAmi tachChR^INu || 1-20-5
"Oh, dharmaja...this is what sage mArkanDeya said to me and I am now reiterating the same to you..." Thus bhIShma is reiterating to dharmaja.
aNuhaH kasya vai putraH kasmin kAle babhUva ha |
rAjA dharma-bhR^itAM shreShTho yasya putro mahAyashAH || 1-20-6
brahmadatto nara-patiH kiM vIryaH sa babhUva ha |
kathaM cha saptamaH teShAM sa babhUva narAdhipaH || 1-20-7
na hi alpa-vIryAya shuko bhagavAn lloka-pUjitaH |
kanyAM prAdAdyat yogAtmA kR^itvIM kIrtimatIM prabhuH || 1--20-8
etat ichChAmi ahaM shrotuM vistareNa mahAdyute |
brahmadattasya charitaM tat bhavAn vakktum arhati || 1-20-9
yathA cha vartamAnAH te saMsAre cha dvijAtayaH |
mArkaNDeyena kathitAH tat bhavAn prabravItu me || 1-20-10
"You said that the best possible expert in kingcraft, namely the glorious brahmadatta, is the son of king aNuhu... but, whose son is this king aNuhu, and in which period did he exist? What might be the mettle of king brahmadatta? How a brAhmaNA, seventh one from among the seven the legatees of kaushika, has become a king? That godly shuka is no trifler because he is the soul of honour in matters of yoga and he is reverenced by all worlds... how that lord shuka gave his glorious daughter kR^itvi to king ahuNa, where ahuNa is comparatively a lesser entity than shuka... all these topics I would like to know in detail... hence it will be apt of you to elucidate the legend of brahmadatta... also please elaborate as t how the seven accursed brahamaNa-s conducted themselves in this world, and how they are manumitted from this world... so, please narrate all that has been narrated to you by sage mArkanDeya...
pratIpasya tu rAjarSheH tulya-kAlo
pitAmahasya me rAjan babhUva iti mayA shrutam || 1-20-11
brahmadatto mahAbhAgo yogI rAjarShi-sattamaH |
rutaj~naH sarva bhUtAnAM sarva bhUta hite rataH || 1-20-12
When my grandfather, the sagely king pratIpa, was on the throne, this kingly sage brahmadatta, the king of kAmpilya, was his coeval, who is righteous among all beings and interested n the well-being of one and all... I have heard so...
sakhA Asa gAlavo yasya yogAchAryo
shikShAm utpAdya tapasA kramo yena pravartitaH|
Highly renowned yoga-master gAlava, who studiously rearranged the texts of veda-anga-s, ancillaries of veda-s, up to some extent, is the collegian - saha-pAThi - and a confidant of this brahmadatta...
kaNDarIkaH cha yogAtmA tasya eva sachivo mahAn || 1-20-13
jAti antareShu sarveShu sakhAyaH sarva eva te |
sapta-jAtiShu sapta eva babhUvuH amita-ojasaH |
Another soul of honour, namely kaNDarIka, is his best minister... in fact, all his consociates are like that... that is to say, the king, his ministers, and friends... all are - brahma-vettA-s - proficient in the quiddity of brahma... further, brahmadatta has seven such friends in all his previous seven births, of whom gAlava is cited because he is a prominent one...
yatha uvAcha mahAbhAgo mArkaNDeyo
mahAtapAH || 1-20-14
tasya vaMsham ahaM rAjan kIrtayiShyAmi tachChR^iNu |
brahmadattasya paurANAM pauravasya mahAtmanaH || 1-20-15
King brahmadatta is from the lineage of puru dynasty... hence listen about the lineage of puru kings as has been said by sage mArkanDeya...
bR^ihat-kShatrasya dAyAdaH suhotro nAma dhArmikaH
suhotrasya api dAyAdo hastI nAma babhUva ha || 1-20-16
tena idaM nirmitaM pUrvaM hastinA-puram uttamam |
In the lineage of puru kings bR^ihat-kShatra is a prominent personality... his son is suhotra, whose son is hasti... the city of hastina-pura is built by this king hasti...
There is very tall family tree preceding bR^ihat-kShatra. Chapter XIX of viShNu purANa, of HH Wilson, may be perused for some details on it.
hastinaH chApi dAyAdAH trayaH parama-dhArmikAH ||
ajamIDho dvimIDhaH cha purumIDhaH tathaiva cha |
ajamIDhasya dhUminyAM jaj~ne bR^ihad-iShuH nR^ipa |
bR^ihaddhanuH bR^ihadiShoH putraH tasya mahAyashAH || 1-20-18
King hasti begot three sons, namely aja-mIDha, dvi-mIDha, and puru-mIDha; king aja-mIDha begot a son named bR^ihad-iShu through lady dhUmini; bR^ihat-dhanu is the son of bR^ihay-iShu...
bR^ihat-dharma iti vikhyAto rAjA
satyajit tanayaH tasya vishvajit tasya cha AtmajaH || 1-20-19
putro vishvajitaH chApi senajit pR^ithivIpatiH |
putrAH senajitaH cha Asan chatvAro lokavishrutAH || 1-20-20
ruchiraH shvetaketuH cha mahimnAraH tathaiva cha |
vatsaH cha avantako rAjA yasya ete parivatsakAH || 1-20-21
Then the line of princes is: bR^ihay-iShu ® satya-jit ® vishva-jit ® sena-jit; then sena-jit begot four sons, namely: ruchira, shvetaketu, mahimnAra and one called vatsa.... this vatsa aka vatsala was the sometime king of avanti kingdom...
ruchirasya tu dAyAdaH pR^ithuseno mahAyashAH |
pR^ithusenasya pAraH tu pArAt nIpaH tu jaj~nivAn || 1-20-22
Then the line of princes from ruchira forward is: ruchira ® pR^ithu-sena ® pAra ® nIpa...
nIpasya eka-shataM tAta putrANAm
mahA-rathAnAM rAjendra shUrANAM bAhu-shAlinAm |
nIpA iti sam-AkhyAtA rAjAnaH sarva eva te || 1-20-23
And this nIpa begot hundred sons, who are highly resplendent, valiant, mighty of mightiest, and who are the top speeded men-at-chariots... and they are collectively called 'nIpA-s' after their father...
teShAM vaMshakaraH rAjA nIpAnAM kirtivardhanaH |
kAMpilye samaro nAma sa cheShTa samaro.abhavat || 1-20-24
From among those hundred sons of nIpa, the eldest one being the enricher of that dynasty is the king of kAmpilya kingdom, who is a true battler true to his name, samara - be at daggers drawn...
samarasya paraH pAraH sadashva iti te trayaH |
putrAH parama-dharma-j~nAH para putraH pR^ithuH babhau || 1-20-25
pR^ithoH tu sukR^ito nAma sukR^itena iha karmaNA |
jaj~ne sarva-guNa-peto vibhrAjaH tasya cha AtmajaH || 1-20-26
vibhrAjasya tu putro abhUt aNuho nAma pArthivaH |
babhau shukasya jAmAtA kR^itvI bhartA mahAyashAH || 1-20-27
King samara has three highly righteous sons, namely para, pAra, sadashva; pAra begot a son called pR^ithu, who is highly proficient in dharma; then pR^ithu by virtue of his good deeds begot a prince called sukR^ita - behovely; then that sukR^ita begot a prince called vibhrAja; later vibhrAja begot aNuhu, who is the husband of lady kR^itvi, thus the son-in-law of highly renowned shuka...
This aNuhu is the coeval of my grandfather pratIpa...." Thus bhIShma is continuing his narration to dharmaja.
putraH aNuhasya rAjarShiH brahmadattaH abhavat
yoga-AtmA tasya tanayo viShvaksenaH paraM-tapaH || 1-20-28
vibhrAjaH punaH AyAtaH sva-kR^itena iha karmaNA |
.... iti shrutaH
Then brahmadatta, the sagely king and the honourable soul of yoga is the son of king aNuhu; then brahmadatta's son is viShvaksena... they say, vibhrAja, the deceased father of aNuhu, reacquiring mortal life owing to his past deeds took rebirth as this viShvaksena...
brahmadattasya putraH anyaH sarvasena iti shrutaH || 1-20-29
chakShuShI tasya nirbhinne pakShiNyA pUjanIyayA |
su-chira-uShitayA rAjan brahmadattasya veshmani || 1-20-30
There is another son of brahmadatta, called sarva-sena... but a bird, vichitra chaTaka, a sparrow-like odd domesticated bird whose name is pUjaniya, and which resided in the palace of brahmadatta for a long time, pecked off both the eyes of sarva-sesna, rendering him blind...
Atha asya putraH tu aparo brahmadattasya jaj~nivAn |
viShvaksena iti khyAto mahA-bala-parAkramaH || 1-20-31
But the other son born to brahmadatta, namely viShvaksena, is a very mighty conqueror...
viShvaksenasya putraH abhUt daNDaseno mahIpatiH |
bhallATaH asya kumAraH abhUt rAdheyena hataH purA || 1-20-32
daNDasena AtmajaH shUro mahAtmA kula-vardhanaH |
viShvaksena's son is daNDasena whose son is bhallATa whom one called rAdheya has slain... this bhallATa, the son of daNDasena is a true valiant, highsouled person and conserved his family prestige...
bhallATa putro durbuddhiH abhavat cha yudhiShThira
sa teShAm abhavat rAjA nIpAnAm anta-kR^it nR^ipa |
ugrAyudhena yasya arthe sarve nIpA vinAshitAH || 1-20-34
ugrAyudho mada utsikto mayA vinihato yudhi |
darpa anvito darpa ruchiH satataM cha anaye rataH || 1-20-35
But, the son of bhallATa became ignominious... oh, yudhiShThira... he became the king of nIpa lineage, i.e., the king of kAmpilya, only for the holocaust of nIpa descendants - because he could not resist an invading king called ugra-Ayudha... because of the son of bhallATa, this ugra-Ayudha has annihilated all the nIpa descendants, while the same ugra-Ayudha, who is besides himself, draws himself up, and affronting... and the one who is always indulged in other untoward desires had to be extirpated by me in a confrontation..." Thus bhIShma is continuing narration...
UgrAyudhaH kasya sutaH kasmin vaMshe atha jaj~nivAn |
kim arthaM chaiva bhavatA nihataH tat bravIhi me || 1-20-36
"Whose son is this ugra-Ayudha... to which family he belongs... what for he had to be eliminated by you... please tell me something about it..." thus yudhiShThira cross-queried bhIShma...
bhIShma uvAcha - bhIShma replied:
ajamIDhasya dAyAdo vidvAn rAjA yavi-naraH |
dhR^itimAn tasya putraH tu tasya satya-dhR^itiH sutaH || 1-20-37
jaj~ne satya-dhR^iteH putro dhR^iDha-nemiH pratApavAn |
dhR^iDhanemi sutaH chApi su-dharmA nAma pArthivaH || 1-20-38
AsIt sudharmaNaH putraH sArva-bhaumaH prajA IshvaraH |
sArvabhauma iti khyAtaH pR^ithivyAm eka-rAT vibhuH || 1-20-39
The line of princes from ajamIDha is like this: ajamIDha ® scholarly son named yavi-nara ® dhR^iti-mAn ® satya-dhR^iti ® valiant dhR^iDha-nemi ® su-dharmAa ® sArva-bhauma, named so because he got emperorship and whole earth was under his single umbrella....
tasya anvavAye mahati mahAn paurava nandana |
mahataH chApi putraH tu rAjA rukma-rathaH smR^itaH || 1-20-40
putro rukmarathasya api su-pArshvo nAma pArthivaH |
supArshva tanayaH chApi sumatiH nAma dhArmikaH || 1-20-41
sumateH api dharmAtmA sannatiH nAma vIryavAn |
tasya vai sannateH putraH kR^itaH nAma mahAbalaH || 1-20-42
In this great lineage of paurava-s there arose a king named mahati, and from him the lineage of princes is like this: mahati ® rukma-ratha ® su-pArshva ® sumati ® sannati ® kR^ita
shiShyo hiraNyanAbhasya kaushalasya mahAtmanaH |
chatur-viMshati-dhA tena sa-prAchyAH sAma-saMhitAH || 1-20-43
smR^itAH te prAchya-sAmAnaH kArtayo nAma sAma-gAH |
This prince kR^ita is the disciple of a vedic-teacher from kosala province called hiraNya-nAbha... this teacher has bifurcated old treatises of sAma-veda into twenty-four divisions that are later renowned as prAchya-sAmA-s, ancient sAma-veda-hymns; kArti, the son of kR^ita has practised the singing of these sAma-veda-hymns in the rearranged method, hence those who sing sAma-hymns in that way are called as kIrti-sAma-gA - kIrti-sAma-singers - prefixing the name of original singer to the method of singing, with a little variation in words kArti and kIrti...
kArtiH ugrAyudhaH saH atha vIraH paurava-nandanaH
babhUva yena vikramya pR^iShatasya pitAmahaH |
nIpo nAma mahatejAH pA~nchAla adhipatiH hataH || 1-20-45
This kArti or kIrti is the father of the valiant legatee of paurava-s, namely ugra-Ayudha, who attacked and slain the then king of pAnchAla, a legatee of nIpa and the grandsire of pR^iShata...
Other texts say that ugra-Ayudha attacked and slew pR^iShata, the grandfather of drupada; others say he slew daNDa-sena the father of pR^iShata; while mbTn says that pR^iShata is the father of drupada. For mbh even Dhrishtadyumna is the son of Prishata. Hence pR^iShata here is to be taken as an ancestor, grandsire, rather than a strict term grandfather.
ugrAyudhasya dAyAdaH kShemyo nAma mahAyashAH |
kShemyAt suvIro nR^ipatiH suvIrAt tu nR^ipa~njayaH || 1-20-46
nR^ipa~njayAt bahu-ratha iti ete pauravAH smR^itAH |
The progeny of ugra-Ayudha is like this: ugra-Ayudha ® kShemya ® su-vIra ® nR^ipa~njaya, or sR^i~njaya ® bahu-ratha... these will be called the legatees of paurava-s...
sa cha api ugrAyudhaH tAta dur-buddhiH abhavat
tadA || 1-20-47
pravR^iddha chakro balavAn nIpa anta-karaNo mahAn |
sa darpa-pUrNo hatva ajau nIpAn anyAn cha pArthivAn || 1-20-48
That mighty king ugra-Ayudha acquired a fierce weapon, namely a disc, purportedly per kindness of shrI hari, so they say... and then he started to wipe out nIpa dynasty... having annihilated the kings of nIpa and other kings incidentally, his audacity multiplied making him a pervert...
pitari uparate mahyaM shrAvayAmAsa kilbiSham |
mAm amAtyaiH parivR^itaM shayAnaM dharaNI-tale || 1-20-49
At that time my father king shantanu breathed his last, and I was undertaking pitR^i-medha, postfunerary rites, with utmost sincerity like dietaries and getting forty winks on bare ground etc... at such a time this ugra-Ayudha sent a messenger to me when I am surrounded by my ministers, who conveyed a worst message to me...
pitR^i-medha need not be misconstrued as slaughter of father, as has been done in the case of ashva-medha. medha is a ritual in accordance with vedic injunctions.
ugrAyudhasya rAjendra dUtaH abhi etya vachaH
adya tvaM jananIM bhIShma gandha-kAlIM yashasvinIm |
strI-ratnaM mama bhArya arthe prayachCha kuru-pu~Ngava || 1-20-50
Coming into my audience, oh, king dharmaja, that messenger of ugra-Ayudha parroted these words of his sender: "oh, bhIShma, yield your glorious stepmother, a jewel among women, as my makeshift-wife...
evaM rAjyaM cha te sphItaM dhanAni cha na saMshayaH |
pradAsyAmi yathA kAmam ahaM vai ratna-bhAk bhuvi || 1-20 -51
mama prajvalitaM chakraM nishamya idaM su-durjayam |
shatravo vidravanti ajau darshanAt eva bhArata || 1-20-52
rAShTrasya ichChasi chet svasti prANAnAM vA kulasya vA |
shAsane mama tiShThasva na hi te shAntiH anyathA || 1-20-53
Whereby oh, kuru, the great... you can snowball your kingdom and riches... no doubt about it... or, I will present whatever gems and jewels available on earth if you so wish... or else, see the indomitable discus of mine that is ablaze, just by the sight of which my enemies fleeth the battlefield... if you cherish well-being of your province, or of your life, or of your dynasty, simply remain in my command... otherwise, you have no peace...
adhaH-prastAra-shayane shayAnaH tena choditaH |
dUtAn tarhi tam etat vai vAkyam agni shikha upamam || 1-20-54
that ahaM tasya durbuddheH vij~nAya matam achyuta |
Aj~nApayaM vai saMgrAme sena-adhyakShAn cha sarvashaH || 1-20-55
This is the message sent to someone who is observing ritual formalities like reposing on mats on ground etc... actually, I too was reposing on a mat then... but perceiving the malice of ugra-Ayudha through such a message that is twingeing like the tongue of an inferno, I then got up, dismissed the messenger, ordered all of my army commanders to be at the ready...
vicitravIryaM bAlaM cha mat upAshrayam eva cha |
dR^iShTvA krodha-parIta-AtmA yuddhAya eva mano dadhe || 1-20-56
nigR^ihItaH tadA ahaM taiH sachivaiH mantra-kovidaiH |
R^itvidbhiH veda-kalpaiH cha su-hR^idbhiH cha artha-darshibhiH || 1-20-57
snigdhaiH cha shAstra-vidbhiH cha saMyugasya nivartane |
kAraNaM shrAvitaH cha asmi yukta-rUpaM tadA anagha || 1-20-58
At that time, vicitravIrya was just a boy and wholly dependant on me... perceiving ugra-Ayudha, is hell-bent on warring with me as he is maddened with fury, I too wanted to retaliate... but, my ministers who are experts in political thinking, my priests who are high scholars of vedic injunctions, my friends who are well aware of the expedient, and the other near and dear who all base their thinking in scriptural imperatives have deterred me from a direct confrontation at that particular moment... they have advised me about some workable methods that can be undertaken at that time, i.e., when I am in postfunerary vow aimed at my deceased father...
pravR^itta-chakraH pApaH asau tvaM cha ashaucha gataH
na cha eSha prathamaH kalpo yuddhaM nAma kadAchana || 1-20-59
te vayaM sAma pUrvaM vai dAnaM bhedaM tathaiva cha |
prayokShyAmaH tataH shuddho daivatAni abhivAdya cha || 1-20-60
kR^ita svasti ayanaH vipraiH hutvA agnIn archya cha dvijAn |
brAhmaNaiH abhyanuj~nAtaH prayAsyasi jayAya vai || 1-20-61
That sinister ugra-Ayudha's discus is still spinning, my lord, for it is godsend to him..., and when you are in an unclean state - ashaucham - ceremonially impure condition, it is not advisable to confront a weapon of divine origin... so, a direct war is not the immediate solution, anywise... hence, we the ministers will approach the intruder using political traits of sAma, dAna, bheda upAyA-s, tactics of amity, integrity, and dis-integrity, to alleviate a confrontation... should this fail, you may wage a war after cleansing yourself at the end of postfunerary vow towards your deceased father... after completion of this vow of yours, you have to take the cleansing ceremonial bath; then firstly worship gods; obtain sacred blessings of priests - svasti-ayana-vAkyA-s; enkindle sacred ritual fires; venerate scholarly brAhmaNA-s; then, having received the consent of scholars, you can embark on a battle, if you cherish a righteous victory...
astrANi cha prayojyAni na praveshyaH cha sa~NgaraH |
Ashauche vartamAne tu vR^iddhAnAm iti shAsanam || 1-20-62
Entering a battlefield or launching of missiles is prohibited during the period of ashaucha - ceremonially unclean state - this is the dictum of the past-masters...
sAma-dAna-AdibhiH pUrNam api bhedena vA tataH |
tAM haniShyasi vikramya shambaraM maghavAn iva || 1-20-63
If the enemy is unyielding to us even after our using political tactics of amity, charity, and disintegrity, then you can launch a full-scale war to eliminate him, as indra once eliminated shambara-asura, the demon, in war..." So said the ministers to me...
prAj~nAnAM vachanaM kAle vR^iddhAnAM cha visheShataH |
shrotavyam iti tat shrutvA nivR^ittaH asmi narAdhipa || 1-20-64
tataH taiH saMkramaH sarvaH prayuktaH shAstra-kovidaiH |
tasmin kAle kurushreShTha karma cha Arabdham uttamam || 1-20-65
And I, thinking that we should be heedful of the timely advice of knowledgeable people that too of elders, refrained myself from waging an immediate war... then those scholarly ministers and priests have gone to ugra-Ayudha to draw truce and I have completed the ritual vow in the meantime...
saMkramaH - upAya antereNa shamaH - one who can be silenced by other means than war.
saH sAma AdibhiH eva adAu upAyaiH prAk chintitaiH |
anunIyamAnaH dur-buddhiH anunetuM na shakyate || 1-20-66
pravR^ittaM tasya tat chakram adharma niratasya vai |
para-dAra-abhilASheNa sadyaH tAta nivartitam || 1-20-67
na tu ahaM tasya jAne tat nivR^ittaM chakram uttamam |
hataM sva-karmaNA taM tu pUrvaM sadbhiH cha ninditam|| 1-20-68
But, I have been thinking all the while that 'this evil-minded ugra-Ayudha will not yield to any of the political manoeuvres preplanned by my ministers...' 'his discus will be effective if he uses it properly... how can that so-called divine discus will work for his gains when he himself became a wife-snatcher...' 'I have no knowledge of the capability of that discus... how to backfire it, if at all it is launched on us...' these being my thoughts, good samaritans have also inveighed him saying, 'this ugra-Ayudha is digging his own grave by this provocative action...'
kR^ita shauchaH sharI cha apI rathI niShkramya vai purAt |
kR^ita svastyayano vipraiH prAyodhayam ahaM ripum || 1-20-69
tataH saM-sargam Agamya balena astra balena cha |
tri aham unmatta vat yuddhaM deva asuram iva abhavat || 1-20-70
sa mayA astra-pratApena nir-dagdho raNa mUrdhani |
papAta abhimukhaH shUraH tyaktvA prANAnn arindama || 1-20-71
When the delegation of my ministers failed, as expected, I set out to encounter the enemy myself, because my ritual vow is completed by then... when I just came out of our city, taking my arms, riding on my chariot, while priests chanting hymns for bon voyage, I am suddenly beset by enemy's army... then coming into direct confrontation, a mad war of three days is waged with the personal as well as the might of our armies, as if it is a war between gods and demons...
"And oh, enemy-eliminator dharmaja, that ugra-Ayudha, burnt by the efficacy of my missile fell down in the van of battle, and breathed his last...
What happened to the discus that is oft repeated for its destruction... though it is unsaid here, its legend is like this: ugra-Ayudha flung that discus at the brAhmaNa-s and ministers who have gone to him as ambassadors of bhIShma, at the time of delegation itself. But that disc stayed spinning in the sky, without hurting anyone. ugra-Ayudha, surprised at the malfunction of his missile, neither withdrew it, nor depended on it, till the arrival of bhIShma to battlefield. When bhIShma arrived, there occurred a brute war, which bhIShma terms as unmatta vat yuddhaM - a maniacal war, because divine power of discus has become non-functional.
e-tasmin antare tAta kAmpilye pR^iShataH
hate nIpa Ishvare chaiva hate cha ugrAyudhe nR^ipe || 1-29-72
A while later king pR^iShata came back to throne of kAmpilya, viz. south pAnchAla, as he had to back away from his kingdom when his grandfather and the lord of nIpa-s is dead at the hand of ugra-Ayudha, while that ugra-Ayudha, the then ruling king of pAnchAla, is dead at my hand...
Ahi-chChatraM svakaM rAjayaM pitryaM prApa mahAdyutiH
drupadasya pitA rAjan mama eva anumate tadA || 1-20-73
This king pR^iShata, the father of king drupada, ruled both south pAnchAla with capital kAmpilya, as well as the north pAnchAla with capital Ahi-chChatraM, of course, with the carte blanche given by me...
tataH arjunena tarasA nirjitya drupadaM raNe |
Ahi-chChatraM sa kAmpilyaM droNAya atha apavarjitam || 1-20-74
prati-gR^ihya tataH droNa ubhayaM jayatAM varaH |
kAmpilyaM drupadAya eva prAyachChat viditaM tava || 1-20-75
Later when your brother arjuna won both north and south pAnchAlA-s together with their capitals Ahi-chChatraM and kAmpilya, on conquering drupada in a confrontation, he ceded both of them to droNa-AchArya... but droNa, taking both kingdoms from arjuna, returned south pAnchAla with its capital kAmpilya to drupada... you are aware of that...
apa-varjitam= dattam= left off, beneficed.
eSha te drupadasya Adau brahmadattasya chaiva ha |
vaMshaH kArtsnyena vai prokto nIpasya ugrAyudhasya cha || 1-20-76
Thus this is the dynastic legend of drupada and others, brahmadatta, nIpa kings and that of ugra-Ayudha, narrated in its entirety...
kim arthaM brahmadattasya pUjanIyA shakuntikA |
andhaM chakAra gA~Ngeya jyeShThaM putraM purA vibho || 1-20-77
chira uShitA gR^ihe chApi kim arthaM chaiva yasya sA |
chakAra vi-priyam idaM tasya rAj~no mahAtmanaH || 1-20-78
pUjanIyA chakAra asau kiM sakhyaM tena chaiva ha |
etat me saMshayaM Chindhi sarvam uktvA yathAtatham || 1-20-79
"hè gA~Ngeya, what for the bird pUjanIya pecked off the eyes of brahmadatta's son? Though that bird is house-trained, though it has stay put in the palace for a long time, how come that bird harmed the inmates... basically, what for that bird remained in the palace of brahmadatta for a long time... what is the attachment between that king and this bird.... please clarify these doubts of mine...
shR^iNu sarvaM mahArAja yathA vR^ittam abhUt
brahmadattasya bhavane tat nibodha yudhiShThira || 1-20-80
"Oh, yes, my dear king, yudhiShThira, I will now tell all about the incident that has once happened in the palace of brahmadatta... you may listen to it...
kAchit shakuntikA rAjan brahmadattasya vai sakhI
shiti-pakShA shoNa-shirAH shiti-pR^iShThA shiti-udarI || 1-20-81
sakhI sA brahmadattasya sudR^iDhaM baddha sauhR^idA |
tasyAH kulAyam abhavat gehe tasya narottama || 1-20-82
There used to be a preen bird named pUjanIya, a dear friend of brahmadatta, which is beauteous with coppery plume, white wings, and whitely white dorsally and ventrally... the brahmadatta's palace has become that bird's accustomed snuggery whereby that king is emotionally attached to this bird...
kulAyam = nIDam= cage, nest, snuggery.
sA sadA ahani nirgatya tasya rAj~no gR^iha uttamAt |
chachAra ambhodhi-tIreShu palvaleShu sarassu cha || 1-20-83
nadI parvata ku~njeShu vaneShu upa-vaneShu cha |
praphulleShu taDAgeShu kalhAreShu sugandhiShu || 1-20-84
kumuda utpala ki~njalka surabhI kR^ita vAyuShu |
haMsa sArasa GhuShTeShu kAraNDava ruteShu cha || 1-20-85
Everyday that bird, exiting the royal palace, used to flutter over seashores, rivers, and lakes; it used to roam in the forests and gardens on the mountain terraces where just grown leaflets are there; on the lakes filled with plenitude of blossomy flowers; where the breeze is loaded with the fragrances of the pollen of lotuses, kumuda and utpala etc flowers; and where the ambience is reverberating with the coos of hosts of swans, sArasa, kAraNDava etc waterfowls...
charitvA teShu sA rAjan nishi kAmpilyam Agamat |
nR^ipateH bhavanaM prApya brahmadattasya dhImataH || 1-20-86
rAj~nA tena sadA rAjan kathA yogaM chakAra sA |
AshcharyANi cha dR^iShTAni yAni vR^ittAni kAnichit || 1-20-87
charitvA vividhAn deshAn kathayAmAsa sA nishi |
That bird used to return to kAmpilya city by the evening after moving like that through out the day... then, on coming back to the palace of king brahmadatta that bird used to narrate if any amazing things or happenings she has seen on that day, like a daily newscaster...
kadAchit tasya nR^ipateH brahmadattasya kaurava
putro abhUt rAjashArdUla sarvasena iti vishrutaH |
pUjanIyA atha sA tasmin prAsUta aNDam atha api cha || 1-20-89
tasmin nIDe purA hi ekaM tat kila prAsphuTat tadA |
sphuTito mAMsa-piNDaH tu bAhu pAda Asya saMyutaH || 1-20-90
babhru vaktraH chakSuH hIno babhUva pR^ithivIpate |
chakShuShmAn api abhUt pashchAt IShat pakSha utthitaH cha ha || 1-20-91
Sometime later brahmadatta begot a son named sarva-sena, while the bird pUjanIya also laid an egg simultaneously, and when that egg is hatched a meatball like bird emerged with infinitesimal wings, feet and beak, eyes unopened yet, but that birdling has a clamorous voice... slowly wings stared to rise and eyes opening in step with its growth, yet remained rudimentary...
atha sA pUjanIyA vai rAja-putra sva putrayoH |
tulya snehAt prItimatI divase divase.abhavat || 1-20-92
AjahAra sadA sAyaM cha~nchvA amR^ita-phala dvayam |
amR^ita AsvAda sadR^ishaM sarvasena tanUjayoH || 1-20-93
sa bAlo brahmadattasya pUjanIyA sutaH cha ha |
te phale bhakShayitvA cha pR^ithukau prIta-mAnasau || 1-20-94
abhUtAM nityam eva iha khAdetAM tau cha te phale |
However, the mother bird pUjanIya had shown equal tenderness towards the two newborns, her son, and the prince sarva-sena, day in and day out... she used to bring two nectarine fruits daily by evening for these two infants, because eating them is synonymous with consuming nectar itself for those two... mother bird's bringing two fruits and the infants eating them has become a daily routine...
tasyAM gatAyAm atha cha pUjanyAM vai sadA ahani || 1-20-95
shishunA chaTakena atha dhAtrI taM tu shishuM nR^ipa |
tena prakrIDayAmAsa brahmadatta AtmajaM sadA || 1-20-96
The prince sarva-sena daily used to bring the baby bird from the nest to ground and started to play with it, as and when the mother bird pUjanIya went out of the palace in the morning on her daily rounds...
nIDAt tam AkR^iShya tadA pUjanIyA kR^itA tataH |
krIDatA rAja-putreNa kadAchit chaTakaH sa tu || 1-20-97
nigR^ihItaH kandharAyAM shishunA dR^iDha-muShTinA |
dur-bha~Nga-muShTinA rAjan asUn sadyaH tu ajIjahat || 1-20-98
On certain day when the prince wanted to play with young bird, he dragged it from the nest, but it resisted... he again pulled it catching by its neck... being a frail bird it could not free itself from the tight grip of the prince, and breathed its last instantaneously...
taM tu pa~nchatvam ApannaM vyAtta AsyaM bAla ghAtitam |
kathaMchit mochitaM dR^iShtvA nR^ipatiH duHkhitaH abhavat 1-20-99
dhAtrIM tasya jagarhe tAM tadA ashru paramo nR^ipaH |
tasthau shoka anvito rAja~n shochan taM chaTakaM tadA || 1-20-100
Arriving from somewhere, king brahmadatta saw that dead baby bird in the hands of prince, and understood that the prince alone has strangulated the bird to death, and somehow released the dead bird from the grip of the prince, making it fall to ground... then, clutching the ground where the dead bird has fallen, the king wailed tearfully... he remained squatted on ground lamenting for the bird...
pUjanIya api tat kAle gR^ihItvA tu phala dvayam |
brahmadattasya bhavanam AjagAma vane-charI || 1-20-101
atha apashyat tam Agamya gR^ihe tasmin narAdhipa |
pa~ncha-bhUta parityaktaM shochyaM taM sva tanu udbhavam || 1-20-102
mumoha dR^iShTvA taM putraM punH saMj~nAam atha Alabhat |
labdha-saMj~nA cha SA rAjan vilalApa tapasvinI || 1-20-103
At the same time the mother bird pUjanIya also returned to the palace of brahmadatta taking two nectarine fruits. brahmadatta who is lamenting for the departed baby bird also noticed the arrival of mother bird... but became speechless in his mourning. On seeing her baby bird, from which the five vital elements have departed, and lay dead, that mother bird fainted instantaneously... recovering her senses later she wailed a lot...
na tu tvam AgatAM putra vAshantIM parisarpasi |
kurvan chATu-sahasrANi avyakta kalayA girA || 1-20-104
vyAditAsyaH kShudhArtashcha pItenAsyena putraka |
shoNena tAlunA putra kathamadya na sarpasi || 1-20-105
pakShAbhyAM tvAM pariShvajya nanu vAshAmi chApyaham |
chi-chI-kU-chI iti vAshantaM tvAmadya na shR^iNomi kim || 1-20-106
manoratho yastu mama pashyeyaM putrakaM kadA |
vyAttAsyaM vAri yAchantaM sphuratpakShaM mamAgrataH || 1-20-107
sa me manoratho bhagnastvayi pa~nchatvamAgate |
vilapyaivaM bahuvidhaM rAjAnam atha sAbravIt || 1-20-108
"O, son why you are not nearing me today... why don't you make sweet sounds with your sweet voice... why you don't bite this fruit today with your yellow beak... why don't you eat this fruit with your reddish mouth... why not wiggle your wings to my delight... why I am not listening your pleasant chirping saying chi-chI-kU-chI... if not now, when can my motherly affection be fulfilled with a son like you... opening your mouth and wiggling your wings you used to ask for water... where is it now... all my motherly hopes are shattered with your passing..." thus that mother bird wailed a lot and then started questioning the king...
nanu mUrdha abhiShiktaH tvaM dharmaM vetsi sanAtanam |
adya kasmAt mama sutaM dhAtryA ghAtitavAn asi || 1-20-109
tava putreNa cha AkR^iShya kShatriya-adhama shaMsa me |
na cha nUnaM shrutA te.abhUt iyam A~NgIrasI shrutiH || 1-20-110
"O, king you are a king anointed scripturally and you are well aware of age-old tradition... tell me you lowly kshatriya... what for you made my son fall dead at the hand your son who strangled him... are you heedless of the canons of a~NgIrasa-s...
sharaNAgataH kShudha ArtaH cha shatrubhiH cha abhyupadrutaH |
chira uShitaH cha svagR^ihe pAtavyaH sarvadA bhavet || 1-20-111
apAlayan naro yAti kuMbhI-pAkam asaMshayam |
katham asya haviH devA gR^ihNanti pitaraH svadhAm || 1-20-112
"One who does not protect him, who is in need of shelter, thirsty, hungry; or one who is fleeing for fear of foes; or one who is long-time resident in his own house, will undoubtedly fall in a hell called kuMbhI-pAka-narakam..." so say the canons of a~NgIrasa-s... then, where is the question of gods or fatherly-gods taking the holy-oblations offered by such a hell-bound person..
evamuktvA mahArAja dasha-dharma-gatA satI |
shokArtA tasya bAlasya chakShuShI nirbibheda sA || 1-20113
karAbhyAM rAjaputrasya tataH tat chakShuH asphuTat |
kR^itvA cha andhaM nR^ipa-sutam utpapAta tataH ambaram || 1-20-114
Saying so she that mother bird went into a state called tenfold-frenzy induced by her ecstatic wailing, Then, on puncturing the eyes of the son of brahmadatta with her talons and rendering him blind she dashed to sky...
dasha-dharmam - ten types of frenzies are:
matta pramatta unmattaH shrAntaH kruddho bubhukshitaH |
tvaramANaH ca bhiitaH ca lubdhaH kAmI ca te dasha ||
atha rAjA sutaM dR^IShTvA pUjanIyAm uvAcha ha |
vishokA bhava kalyANi kR^itaM te bhIru shobhanam || 1-20-115
gata shokA nivartasva ajaryaM sakhyamastu te |
pureva vasa bhadraM te nivartasva ramasva cha || 1-20-116
putra-pIDodbhavaH chApi na kopaH paramaH tvayi |
mama asti sakhi bhadraM te kartavyaM cha kR^itaM tvayA || 1-20-117
Even on seeing his son blinded that way, king brahmadatta spoke to the mother bird in this way, "you have justly requited like for like with my son... oh, lady-bird, be fearless and leave off your agony... you have done whatever you ought to... even though I am heartbroken for my son, I don't bear a grudge against you for whatever you have done to him... come back and stay with me as before...
Atma-upamyena jAnAmi putra-snehaM tava api aham |
na cha ahaM vastum ichChAmi tava putram achakShuSham |
kR^itvA vai rAjashArdUla tvat gR^ihe kR^ita-kilbiShA || 1-20-118
"Committing the blunder of blinding your son, oh, kingly tiger, it will be unbefitting for me to stay further in your house... I am aware of your love for your soul-like son...
gAthAH cha api ushano gItA imAH shR^iNu mayA iritAH |
ku-mitraM cha ku-deshaM cha ku-rAjAnaM ku-sauhR^idam |
ku-putraM cha ku-bhAryAM cha dUrataH parivarjayet || 1-20-119
You may list4en to shukra-nIti as I tell... a vile-friend, vile-country, vile-king, vile-friend, vile-son, vile-wife are discardable distantly...
kumitre sauhR^idaM nAsti kubhAryAyAM kuto ratiH |
kutaH piNDaH kuputre vai nAsti satyaM kurAjani || 1-20-120
kusauhR^ide kva vishvAsaH kudeshe na tu jIvyate |
kurAjani bhayaM nityaM kuputre sarvato.asukham || 1-20-121
Where is amity with a vile-friend, where is the pleasure with a vile-wife, where is beatification with a vilely son, where is candour with a vile-king, where is trustfulness with a vilely person, where is livelihood in a vilest country! Threat haunts everywhere from a vile-king, while fret hangs around everything from a vile-son...
apakAriNi visraMbhaM yaH karoti narAdhamaH |
anAtho durbalo yadvA na chiraM sa tu jIvati || 1-20-122
na vishvaset avishvaste vishvaste na ati-vishvaset |
vishvAsAt bhayam utpannaM mUlAni api nikR^intati || 1-20-123
A basely fellow becomes debilitated, deprived, or even short-lived, if he reposes confidence in deleterious people... reposing confidence in untrustworthy is bad; reposing overconfidence in trustworthy is equally bad, because confidence breeds compunction, which uproots root and branch of the truster...
visraMbhaM = vishvAsam
rAja-seviSu vishvAsaM garbha-saMkariteShu cha |
yaH karoti naro mUDho na chiraM sa tu jIvati || 1-20-124
A fool reposing confidence in the officials of the king, or in the misbegotten nitwits, will not have a long-lived life...
api unnatiM prApya nR^IpAt prAvAraH kITako yathA |
sa vinashyati asaMdeham AhaivamushanA nR^ipa || 1-20-125
Presumptuous self-styled elevation of oneself higher than a king ruins him instantaneously as with an ant falling to death when it soars to heights just when its wings started to emerge...
prAvAraH = marAThi = dongala, or mungaLa = A species of large black ant; an ant with small wings; clothes-insect.
api mArdava bhAvena gAtraM saMlIya buddhimAn |
ariM nAshayate nityaM yathA valliH mahA-drumam || 1-20-126
If one is succumbed to the cajolery of his enemy it is his self-ruin as with a great tree succumbing to the entanglement of a creeper around it...
mR^iduH ArdraH kR^isho bhUtvA shanaiH saMlIyate ripuH |
valmIka iva vR^ikShasya pashchAt mUlAni kR^intati || 1-20-127
If one believes an enemy beguiled by his sweet and juicy talk his fate is doomed as with a tree slowly gouged out by a snake pit...
adroha samayaM kR^itvA munInAm agrato hariH |
jaghAna namuchiM pashchAt apAM phenena pArthiva || 1-20-128
Though hari, epithetically indra here, outwardly made an accord with sages to not to do any duplicity, furtively eliminated demon namuchi, that too just with the spume of ocean water in which his weapon thunderbolt is camouflaged...
suptaM mattaM pramattaM va ghAtayanti ripuM narAH |
viSheNa vahninA vA.api shastreNa api atha mAyayA || 1-20-129
People will strive to eliminate their enemies when in slumber, drunk or unwary... especially by poison, arson, or dissimulations...
na cha sheShaM prakurvanti punaH vaira bhayAt narAH |
ghAtayanti samUlaM hi shrutvaa imAm upamAM nR^ipa || 1-20-130
Taking heed of the following maixim, people strive to eradicate any trace of enmity for fear of its recurrence...
shatru sheSham R^iNAt sheShaM sheSham agneH cha bhUmipa
punaH vardheta sambhUya tasmAt sheShaM na sheShayet || 1-20-131
Vestigial debt, fire, or a foe redoubles in no time... hence, oh, king brahmadatta, their remains should not remain...
hasate jalpate vairI eka-pAtre bhunakti cha |
eka-AsanaM cha Arohati smarate tat cha kilbiSham || 1-20-132
kR^itvA sambandhakaM chApi vishvasechChatruNA na hi |
Unbelievable is an enmy even if he conducts himself smilingly, facetiously, or shares a meal in a single plate, or takes a single seat... hence there should be no interconnection or interdependence with him...
pulomAnaM jaghAna ajau jAmAtA sa~n shatakratuH || 1-20-33
nidhAya manasA vairaM priyaM vaktIha yo naraH |
upasarpenna taM prAj~naH kura~Nga iva lubdhakam || 1-20-134
indra is the son-in-law of puloma... be that as it may... the same indra eliminated puloma in a given war... enmity is intransigent... believing someone who comes nigh exchanging pleasantries by hiding hatred in heart is as good as adopting the syndrome 'hart-finding-a-credible-hunter...'
na cha Asanne nivastavyaM sa-vaire vardhite ripau |
pAtayet taM sa-mUlaM hi nadI raya iva drumam || 1-20-135
Unlivable in the proximity of enemy while animosity is escalating for it leads to one's own fall as the rush of river's current undercuts trees living on riverbanks...
amitrAt unnatiM prApya na unnato asmi iti vishvaset |
tasmAt prApya unnatiM nashyet prAvAra iva kITakaH || 1-20-136
One cannot remain in self-approbation with a monologic saying 'I am at the zenith...' that too, when that stature is fed upon the interests of his enemy... he and his stature are likely to fall like a winged ant who takes flight overconfident of its trifling wings…
Iti etA hi ushano-gItA gAthA dhAryA vipashchitA |
kurvatA cha Atma-rakShAM vai nareNa pR^ithivI-pate || 1-20-137
Thus these are the aphoristic teachings contained in ushno-gIta rendered by shrukrAchArya, and he who assimilates them and put to use for his self-defence is a wise man…
mayA sa-kilbiShaM tubhyaM prayuktam ati-dAruNam |
putram andhaM prakurvantyA tasmAt na vishvase tvayi || 1-20-138
I for myself balefully committed an outrageous deed of blinding your son; hence my reposal of any trust in you, now onwards, is out of question…”
evam uktvA pradudrAva tada AkAshaM pata~NginI |
iti etat te mayA khyAtaM purA bhUtam idaM nR^ipa || 1-20-139
brahmadattasya rAjendra yat vR^ittaM pUjanIyayA |
“Saying so, that lady bird pUjanIya instantaneously took wings skyward and went away... this is the episode of brahmadatta and pUjanIya that has happened once...” bhIShma is thus continuing narration to dharmaja.
shrAddhaM cha pR^ichChase yat mAM yudhiShThira
mahAmate || 1-20-140
ataH te vartayiShye aham itihAsaM purAtanam |
gItaM sanatkumAreNa mArkaNDeyAya pR^ichChate || 1-20-141
“You have also asked about the efficacy of shrAddha, beatification of manes... I will inform you about that also... when inquisitive sage mArkanDeya has requested, sanat-kumara narrated these olden legends to him...
shrAddhasya phalam uddishya niyataM sukR^itasya cha |
tat nibodha mahArAja sapta-jAtiShu bhArata || 1-20-142
sa-gAlavasya charitaM kaNDarIkasya chaiva hi |
brahmadatta tR^itIyAnAM yoginAM brahmachAriNAm || 1-20-143
Oh, king dharmaja, now I will narrate further about the results occurring from the beatification of fatherly-gods, as has been said in the legends of ‘seven-births of the sons of sage kaushika..’ along with legends of yogi-s and ascetics like gAlava, kaNDarIka and the third brahmadatta...
iti shrImahAbhArate khileShu harivaMshe harivaMshaparvaNi pUjanIyopAkhyAne chaTakAkhyaM nAma viMsho.adhyAyaH
Thus, this is the twentieth chapter of first canto called harivamsha-parva, in harivamsha-purANa, the sequel of mahAbhArata, narrating the legends of rebellious warrior ugra-Ayudha and a lady bird called pUjanIya.
|Prev ch 19 : pitR^ikalpaH - 3 - about subsidence of ascetic merit||contents||
Next chapter 21:
pitR^ikalpaH - 5
verse-transliteration: ks ramachandran
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translation : desiraju hanumanta rao
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|E&OE - content is subject to revision : dated 8-10-07|