aila putrA babhUvuH te sarve deva suta upamAH |
divi jAtA mahAtmAna AyuH dhImAn amAvasuH || 1-27-1
vishvAyuH chaiva dharmAtmA shrutAyuH cha tathAparaH |
dhR^iDhAyuH cha vanAyuH cha shatAyuH cha UrvashI sutAH |
The sons of the son of lady ila, namely purUrava, through the celestial maiden Urvashi are: Ayu, courageous amA-vasu; vishva-Ayu, upright one shruta-Ayu, dhR^iDha-Ayu, vana-Ayu and shata-Ayu; these princes took birth in heavens and look like gods...
amAvasoH cha dAyAdo bhImo rAja atha nagnajit || 1-27-2
shrImAn bhImasya dAyAdo rAja AsIt kA~nchana-prabhaH |
vidvAn tu kA~nchanasya api suhotro abhUt mahAbalaH || 1-27-3
King amA-vasu’s sons are bhIma and nagnajit; glorious bhIma’s son is king kA~nchana-prabha, whose son is a scholar as well as a might one, named su-hotra...
sauhotriH abhavat jahnuH keshinyA garbha saMbhavaH |
Ajahre yo mahat-satraM sarva-medha mahA-makham || 1-27-4
This su-hotra begot through lady keshini, a prince called jahnu, who later became a great sage and conducted a supreme vedic-ritual known as sarva-medham, in which continual and sumptuous repast is provided, hence called mahat-satram...
pati-lobhena yaM ga~NgA patitve abhisasAra ha |
na ichChataH plAvayAmAsa tasya ga~NgA cha tatsadaH |
sa tayA plAvitaM dR^iShTvA yaj~na vATaM samantataH || 1-27-5
sauhitriH abravIt ga~NgAM kruddho bharatasattama || 1-27-6
Desirous to get jahnu as her husband river ganga flumed towards him; but, on getting a refusal from him, she started to flood the precincts of his ritual field from everywhere; seeing which that royal sage juhnu spoke to ganga in this way with all his ire...
eSha te viphalaM yatnaM pibann ambhaH karomi aham |
asya ga~Nge avalepasya sadyaH phlam avApnuhi || 1-27-7
“This is your futile effort, oh, ganga, I will just sip all your water whereby you will come down with your own adamance...”
rAjarShiNA tataH pItAM ga~NgAM dR^iShTvA maharShayaH |
upa-ninyuH mahAbhAgAM duhitR^tvena jAhnavIm || 1-27-8
So saying that rolyal sage juhnu gulped whole water of ganga... seeing this incarceration of ganga, all the other great sages have approached juhnu and requested him to release her, for which sage juhnu has accepted and released ganga... then the other sages have led her forth on her own course, deeming her as the daughter of royal sage juhnu... hence, ganga is also called as jahnavi...
C.f. vAlmiki rAmayAna, bAla kANda - ganga avataraNa for details.
yuvanAshvasya putrIM tu kAverIM jahnuH Avahat |
yuavanAshvasya shApena ga~NgA ardhena vinirmame || 1-27-9
However, that royal sage juhnu married River kAveri, who incidentally is the daughter of yuvanAshva; besides, River kAveri is the manifestation of River ganga herself from one-half of her current...
This is an unnoted fragment in the legend of kAveri. Why kAveri is called as dakshiNa ganga – is answered here, saying that she is one-half of ganga herself.
Once, yuvanAshva cursed ganga to take birth among humans. So she became the daughter of same yuvanAshva, named as River kAveri, transmogrifying half of her current. Thus she made the curse of yuvanAshva a reality as well as her own desire in wooing royal sage juhnu. kenacit nimittena...yuvanAshvo... gangaam... shashaapa ... cakAra iti... nk.
kAverIM saritAM shreShThAM jahnoH bhAryAm
jahnaH tu dayitaM putraM sunahaM nAma dhArmikam |
kAveryAM janayAmAsa ajakaH tasya cha AtmajaH || 1-27-10
ajakasya tu dAyAdo balAkAshvo mahIpatiH |
babhUva mR^igayA-shIlaH kushaH tasya Atmajo.abhavat || 1-27-11
kusha putrA babhUvuH hi chatvAro deva-varchasaH |
kushikaH kusha-nAbhaH cha kushAmbo mUrti-mAn tathA || 1-27-12
pahlavaiH saha saMvR^iddhiM rAjA vanacharaiH tadA |
Thus, jahnu took River kAveri as his wife. who is the best one among rivers, and an irreproachable one too.. from her he begot the rightly prince sunaha; from him the line of princes is like this: sunaha → ajaka → balAka-ashva → the king kusha, who is a hobbyist of hunting, thus who hobnobbed with forest rangers and pahlava-s... to this kusha there are four sons called kushika, kusha-nAbha, kushAmba, and mUrti-mAn...
kushikaH tu tapaH tepe putram indra sama-prabham |
labheyam iti taM shakraH trAsAt abhyetya jaj~nivAn || 1-27-13
pUrNe varSha-sahasre vai taM tu shakro hi apashyata
ati ugra-tapasaM dR^iShTvA sahasrAkShaH puraMdaraH || 1-27-14
samarthaH putra janane svam eva AMsham avAsayat |
putratve kalpayAmAsa sa devendraH surottamaH || 1-27-15
sa gAdhiH abhavat rAjA maghavAn kaushikaH svayam |
Wishing to have a son as good as indra in his stature, kushika started an ascesis... indra came to know about it, but brushed it off... later, when that ascesis is protracting for over a thousand years, then indra’s confidence started shaking... then indra thought it desirable for himself to take birth as the son of kaushika, instead of letting someone else to take birth as his rival... then just with a shade of himself indra transfigured as the son of kushika, named gAdhi, the celebrated king...
paurukutsi abhavat bhAryA gAdhiH tasya AmajAyata || 1-27-16
gAdheH kanyA mahAbhAgA nAmnA satyavatI shubhA |
tAM gAdhiH bhR^igu-putrAya R^ichIkAya dadau prabhuH || 1-27-17
tasyAH prItaH abhavat bhartA bhArgavo bhR^igu-nanadanaH |
putra arthaM kArayAmAsa charuM gAdheH tathaiva cha || 1-27-18
kushika married a damsel from puru-kutsa dynasty and from them this prince gAdhi has emerged... the most auspicious lady named satyavathi is the daughter of this gAdhi, and gAdhi gave her in marriage to sage R^ichIka, the son of bhR^igu, hence a bhArgava... at certain time sage R^ichIka prepared a dessert, consuming which the women will beget sons... he apportioned that dessert in two halves, one intended for his wife satyavati, another for his mother-in-law, i.e., the wife of gAdhi...
uvAcha AhUya tAM bhartA R^ichIko bhArgavaH tadA |
upayojyaH charuH ayaM tvayA mAtrA tu ayaM tava || 1-27-19
tasyAM janiShyate putro dIptimAn kShatriyarShabhaH |
ajeyaH kShatriyaiH loke kShatriyarShabhasUdanaH || 1-27-20
tava api putraM kalyANi dhR^itimantaM taponidhim |
shama AtmakaM dvijashreShThaM charuH eSha vidhAsyati || 1-27-21
Then sage R^ichIka called and said this to his wife satyavati, “you and your mother may use up this dessert; let her know that the son she is going to deliver a son with the effect of this dessert, who will be an invincible kshatriya, and who subjugates best of kings in kshatriya world; and if you consume the other dessert, oh, auspicious lady, then you will bear a son who will be a great sage, best among brAhmaNa-s, and a compassionate person; as such two desserts are being given...”
evam uktvA tu tAM bhAryAm R^ichIko bhR^igunandanaH |
tapasya abhirato nityam araNyaM pravivesha ha || 1-27-22
Saying so sage R^ichIka went away to woods to continue ascesis, as is his wont...
gAdhiH sa dAraH tu tadA R^ichIka AvAsam abhyagAt |
tIrtha-yAtrA prasa~Ngena sutAM draShTuM janeshvaraH || 1-27-23
King gAdhi and his wife arrived at the hermitage of sage R^ichIka to see their daughter satyavathi, en route to their pilgrimages...
charu dvayaM gR^ihItvA tat R^iSheH satyavatI tadA |
charum AdAya yatnena sA tu mAtre nyavedayat || 1-27-24
mAtA vyatyasya daivena duhitre svaM charuM dadau |
tasyAH charum atha aj~nAnAt Atma saMsthaM chakAra ha || 1-27-25
Lady satyavati presented two desserts to her mother duly informing her about their efficacies in bringing two different sons, as has been informed by sage R^ichIka... but satyavati’s mother wilfully interchanged the vessels and gave her dessert to her daughter, while satyavati consumed that dessert intended for her mother, unwittingly and ineluctably...
atha satyavatI garbhaM kShatriya-antakaraM tadA |
dhArayAmAsa dIptena vapuShA ghora darshanam || 1-27-26
Then satyavati became heavy with child who is the prospective terminator of kshatriya-s, while that mother-to-be had become overbearing in her look
tAm R^ichIkaH tato dR^iShTvA yogena abhyanusR^itya cha |
tAm abravIt dvijashreShThaH svAM bhAryAM varavarNinIm || 1-27-27
mAtrAsi va~nchitA bhadre charu vyatysa hetunA |
janiShyati hi putraH te krUra-karma ati-dAruNaH || 1-27-28
bhrAtA janiShyate chApi brahma-bhUtaH tapodhanaH |
vishvaM hi brahma tapasA mayA tasmin samarpitam || 1-27-29
Seeing this by his yogic vision sage R^ichIka has come to his wife from his ascesis and said to her, “your mother has hoodwinked you... you will now deliver a son whose deeds will be horrendous and gruesome... but, your mother will deliver your brother who will be the selfsame brahma, ascetically wealthy... because I gave desserts imbibing all my vedic knowledge and result of my ascesis in them...
vishvaM= brahma kR^itsno vedaH.
evam uktA mahAbhAgA bhartrA satyavatI tadA |
prasAdayAmAsa patiM putro me na IdR^isho bhavet |
brAhmaNa apasadaH tatra ityukto muniH abravIt || 1-27-30
When her husband spoke in this way to her, satyavati entreatingly said to him, “let not my son become a blot on the escutcheon of brAhmaNa-s, please...” Then the sage said to her:
na eSha saMkalpitaH kAmo mayA bhadre tatha astu iti |
ugra-karmA bhavet putraH pituH mAtuH cha kAraNAt |
punaH satyavatI vAkyam evam ukta abravIt idaM || 1-27-31
“I did not intend to make this happen in this way... laissez-aller nature of parents in breeding offspring breeds feral children... let it be so...” Again she said to him:
ichChan llokAn api mune sR^ijethAH kiM punaH sutam |
shama-Atmakam R^ijuM tvaM me putraM dAtum iha arhasi || 1-27-32
kAmam evaM vidhaH pautro mama syAt tava cha prabho |
yadi anyathA na shakyaM vai kartum etat dvijottama || 1-27-33
“If you wish, oh, sage, you are capable of creating whole world anew with both sessile and mobile beings... can’t you give me just one son worth his name... it will be apt of you to accord an equable and upright son to me... that being the case, if what you say is irrevocable, let our grandson take birth with the features you described... but not our son...
tataH prasAdam akarot sa tasyAH tapaso balAt |
bhadre na asti visheSho me pautre cha varavaNini|
tvayA yatha uktaM vachanaM tathA bhadraM bhaviShyati || 1-27-34
Then by his yogic power that sage showed grace on her saying, “parents or grandparents do not contradistinguish between a son and a son of the son... oh, lady... because you asked for it, let happenings happen as you say...
tataH satyavatI putraM janayAmAsa bhArgavam |
tapasyA abhirataM dAntaM jamadagniM shamAtmakam || 1-27-35
Later, lady satyavati delivered a brAhmaNa-s, named jamadagni, who by his nature is inclined towards regular ascesis, perseverant and serene...
bhR^igoH charu viparyAse raudra vaiShNavayoH purA |
yajanAt vaiShNave atha aMshe jamadagniH ajAyata || 1-27-36
Elderly bhR^igu, namely sage R^ichIka, prepared the dessert in two kinds... in one he instilled rudra’s tendency, and in the other viShNu’s... because satyavati has consumed the dessert containing Vishnu’s agency she delivered sage jamadagni with an easygoing attitude like that of viShNu...
sA hi satyavatI puNyA satya-dharma-parAyaNA |
kaushiki iti samAkhyAtA pravR^itteyaM mahAnadI || 1-27-37
That meritorious lady who is true to her vows and conduct, satyavati, later became a great river called kaushiki...
C.f. bAla kANda, vAlmIki rAmAyaNa
ikShvAku vaMsha prabhavo reNuH nAma narAdhipaH |
tasya kanyA mahAbhAgA kAmalI nAma reNukA || 1-27-38
There is a king called reNu, an offshoot of ikShvAku dynasty.... he has a daughter called kAmali, or also called as reNuka... sage jamadagni has married this lady reNuka...
reNukAyAM tu kAmalyAM tapo vidyA samanvitaH |
Archiko janayAmAsa jAmadagnyaM su-dAruNam || 1-27-39
sarva vidya anugaM shreShThaM dhanur vedasya pAragam |
rAmaM kShatriya hantAraM pradIptam iva pAvakam || 1-27-40
aurvasya evam R^ichIkasya satyavatyAM mahAyashAH |
jamadagniH tapo vIryAt jaj~ne brahmavidAM varaH || 1-27-41
madhyamaH cha shunaHshepaH shunaHpuchChaH kaniShThakaH |
Through lady reNuka, alias kAmali, sage jamadagni engendered the most ferocious parashu-rAma who became the foremost scholar among all scholars in all scriptures, an expert in archery, eliminator of hostile kshatriya-s, and who is with a bodily glow like that of blazing ritual fire... jamadagni further sired two more sons through lady satyavati... while parashu-rAma is their eldest son, shshunaHshepaH is the middle one, and shunaHpuchCha is the last son...
Archika, aurva = sage jamadagni.
vishvAmitraM tu dAyAdaM gAdhiH kushika nandanaH || 1-27-42
janayAmAsa putraM tu tapo vidyA shama-Atmakam |
prApya brahmarShi samatAM yaH ayaM sapta-rShitAM gataH || 1-27-43
vishvAmitrastu dharmAtmA nAmnA vishvarathaH smR^itaH |
jaj~ne bhR^igu prasAdena kaushikAt vaMsha vardhanaH || 1-27-44
Coincidentally, the son of king kushika, namely gAdhi, has fathered vishvA-mitra, who is also known as vishva-ratha... this vishvAmitra is endowed with ascesis, education, and serenity... he achieved a status of a brahma-sage from a royal-sage, and ultimately stationed himself in the sphere of seven-sages... he emerged in the dynasty of kushika, hence he is otherwise known as kaushika also, owing to the beneficence of sage R^ichIka in giving a portion of divine dessert to his mother, who is also the mother of satyavati, thus satyavati is the sister of vishvAmitra...
vishvAmitrasya cha sutA devarAt AdayaH smR^itAH |
prakhyAtAH triShu lokeShu teShAM nAmAni me shR^iNu || 1-27-45
vishvAmitra’s sons are devarAta and others who are famed in al the worlds... now, listen to their names:
deva-shravAH katiH chaiva yasmAt kAtyAyanAH smR^itAH |
shAlAvatyAM hiraNyAkSho reNoH jaj~ne atha reNumAn || 1-27-46
sAMkR^itiH gAlavaH chaiva mudgalaH cha iti vishrutAH |
madhuchChando jayaH chaiva devalaH cha tatha aShTakaH || 1-27-47
kachChapo hAritaH chaiva vishvAmitrasya vai sutAH |
deva-shrava, kati, and hiraNyAkSha are the sons of vishvAmitra through lady shAlA-vati; of whom kati is the originator of kAtyAna gotra - kAtyAna lineage... vishvAmitra’s another wife is lady reNu-mati, from whom he begot reNumAn, sAMkR^iti, gAlava, mudgala, madhu-chChanda, jaya, and devala... likewise, aShTaka, kachChapa and hArita are also the sons of vishvAmitra through a lady called dR^iShad-vati, alias mAdhavi...
teShAM khyAtAni gotrANi kaushikAnAM mahAtmanAm || 1-27-48
pANino babhravaH chaiva dhyAna japyAH tathaiva cha |
pArthivA devarAtAH cha shAla~NkAyana bAShkalAH || 1-27-49
lohitA yama-dUtAshcha tathA kArIShavaH smR^itAH |
saushrutAH kaushikA rAjan tatha anye saindhavAyanAH || 1-27-50
devalA reNavaH chaiva yAj~nyavalkya aghamarShaNAH |
auduMbarA hi abhiShNAtAH tArakAyana chu~nchulAH || 1-27-51
shAlAvatyA hiraNyAkShAH sAMkR^ityA gAlavAH tathA |
bAdarAyaNinaH cha anye vishvAmitrasya dhImataH || 1-27-52
Among the grandsons of kaushika some famous people, beginning with pANini, are twelve: pANini, babhrava, dhyAna-japya, pArthiva, deva-rAta, shAla~NkAyana, bAShkala, lohita, yama-dUta, kArIShava, saushruta, saindhavAyana... besides them, there are some more who are the sons of devala and grandsons of reNu too... apart from them, yAj~nyavalkya et al are six: they are yAj~nyavalkya aghamarShaNa, auduMbara, abhiShNa, tArakAyana, and chu~nchula... and there are the grandsons of shAla-vati, i.e. the sons of hiraNyAkSha... and some of the grandsons of reNu like sAMkR^itya-s and gAlava-s are there... and some others like bAdarAyaNina are also there...
Here a confused reading occurs about who belongs to whom. nk gives some account: ...gotrANi – pautAdayaH; pANinAdayaH dvAdasha.... reNoH pautrAH.. etc...
R^iShi antara vivAhyAH cha kaushikA bahavaH smR^itAH |
pauravasya mahArAja brahmarShiH kaushikasya cha |
saMbandho api asya vaMshe asmin brahma kShatrasya vishrutaH || 1-27-53
There were inter-linear marriages among kaushikA-s, even if there is a difference in R^iShi antara, i.e., pravara bheda –mutation in lineage; the pravara-s under kaushika gotra will often be changing because there are both kshatriya-s and brAhmaNa-s in kaushika gotra, as is evident from the relations of paurava-s with both vashiShTa and vishvamitra...
vishvAmitra AtmajAnAM tu shunaHshepo agrajaH smR^itaH |
bhArgavaH kaushikatvaM hi prAptaH sa munisattamaH || 1-27-54
vishvAmitrasya putraH tu shunaHshepo abhavat kila |
shunaHshepha assumes a good name among the sons of vishvAmitra... though he took birth as brAhmaNa, i.e., the third son of R^ichIka and satyavati, he has become a de facto member of kaushika lineage, as he became the son of vishvAmitra, owing to the following incident...
haridashvasya yaj~ne tu pashutve viniyojitaH || 1-27-55
devaiH dattaH shunaHshepo vishvAmitrAya vai punaH |
devaiH dattaH sa vai yasmAt deva-rAtaH tato.abhavat || 1-27-56
Once, this shunaHshepa was about to be used as a sacrificial animal in the ritual of haridashvasya aka harish-chandra... but vishvAmitra averted it by teaching a hymn to shunaHshepa with which gods have released him from becoming a sacrificial animal and restored hi m to vishvAmitra... because he is given by gods, he is called deva-rAta...
devarAta AdayaH sapta vishvAmitrasya vai sutAH |
dR^iShadvatI sutaH chApi vishvAmitrAt tatha aShTakaH || 1-27-57
aShTakasya suto lauhiH prokto jahnu gaNo mayA |
atha UrdhvaM pravakShyAmi vaMsham AyoH mahAtmanaH || 1-27-58
On the whole, vishvAmitra’s sons are reckoned as seven, including this devarAta... that way, lady dR^iShadvati’s son aShTaka is also sired by vishvAmitra... and this aShTaka’s son is lauhi... so far, I have said about the lineage of amAvasu, the descendant of purUrava, all stemming from royal sage jahnu... from this point forward I will narrate about the dynasty of king Ayu...
iti shrImahAbhArate khileShu harivaMshe harivaMshaparvaNi amAvasu vaMsha kIrtanaM
Thus, this is the twenty-seventh chapter of first canto called harivamsha-parva, in harivamsha-purANa, the sequel of mahAbhArata, narrating the dynasty of amA-vasu.
Prev ch 26
: ailolpattiH -
legend of Uravashi-purUrava
Ayu vaMsha kathanam - legend of Ayu
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translation : desiraju hanumanta rao
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|E&OE - content is subject to revision : dated 30-10-07|