devAnAM dAnavAnAM ca gandharva uraga rakShasAm |
utpattiM vistareNa imAM vaishampAyana kIrtaya ||1-3-1
"O, vaishampAyana, please tell me detailedly about the birth of deva-s, dAnava-s, gandharvA-s, and rAkshasA-s...
prajAH sR^ija iti vyAdiShTaH pUrvaM dakShaH svayambhuvA |
yathA sasarja bhUtAni tathA shR^iNu mahIpate ||1-3-2
"Oh, king janamejaya, in days of old swayambhU brahma ordered daksha prajApati, "thou shalt engender...", and as to how daksha did it... I will now explain how... listen to it...
mAnasAnyeva bhUtAni pUrvam eva asR^ijat prabhuH |
R^iShIn devAn sa gandharvAn asurAn atha rAkShasAn |
yaksha bhUta pishAchAM cha vayaH pashu sarIsR^IpAn ||1-3-3
Firstly daksha prajApati has engendered living beings like Rishi-deva-dAnava-yaksha-kinnara-gandharva-bhUta-pishAcha-s, and others like birds, animals, and reptiles etc., in a non-genetic manner, just by the dint of his psychic power...
yadA asya tAH tu mAnasyo na vyavardhanta vai prajAH |
apadhyAtA bhagavatA mahAdevena dhImatA ||1-3-4
But, when these groups of created beings are not multiplying, mythically owing to the fury of mahadeva towards daksha during an earlier time-period, then prajApati daksha thought as to how the living beings can be multiplied...
tataH saMcintya tu punaH prajA hetoH prajApatiH |
sa maithunena dharmeNa sisR^ikShuH vividhAH prajAH |1-3-5
asiknImAvahat patnIM vIraNasya prajApateH |
sutAM sutapasA yuktAM mahatIM lokadhAriNIm ||1-3-6
And then on giving a second thought for the sake of generating people, he took the daughter of one called vIraNa prajApati, namely lady asikni, as his wife and through her who is with high ascesis, matchless, and who can fend the worlds for herself, he started to engender biogenetically...
atha putra sahasrANi vIraNyAM pa~nca vIryavAn |
asiknyAM janayAmAsa dakSha eva prajApatiH || 1-3-7
Then that mighty daksha prajApati begot five thousand sons called pravardhaka-s, alias haryashvA-s, through this lady asikni, the daughter of vIraNa.
tAMstu dR^iShTvA mahAbhAgAn saMvivardhayiShUn prajAH |
devarShiH priya-saMvAdaH nAradaH prAbravIt idam |
nAshAya vacanaM teShAM shApAya eva AtmanaH tathA ||1-3-8
On seeing those highly fortunate five thousand sons of daksha, namely haryashvA-s, who are about to engender their own progeny, the divine sage nArada, the pleasant articulator, sermonized them with ultra mundane dialectics, only to change their attitude towards further procreation and only route it towards almighty, but he did so only to get a ruinous imprecation from daksha.
yaM kashyapaH suta-varaM parameShThI vyajIjanat |
dakShasya vai duhitari dakSha shApa bhayAt muniH ||1-3-9
Whom parameShThi brahma has created as his best offspring, viz. sage nArada, him alone sage kashyapa had to engender through the daughter-like junior-most sister-in-law of daksha, owing to the curse of daksha to nArada.
pUrvaM sa hi samutpanno nAradaH parameShThinA |
asiknyAm atha vIraNyAM bhUyo devarShi sattamaH |
taM bhUyo janayAmAsa pita iva munipuMgavam ||1-3-10
Previously brahma alone gave rise to nArada. Again that best divine sage nArada had to manifest through lady asikni, the daughter of vIraNa prajApati, owing to the curse of daksha to nArada. asikni is the last sister of the wife of daksha. Deeming this last sister-in-law, namely asikni, as his own daughter, daskha gave her to kashyapa prajApati in marriage. Thus, kashyapa too became analogous with brahma in creating nArada, because he sired nArada on another occasion.
tena dakShasya vai putrA haryashvA iti vishrutAH |
nirmathya nAshitAH sarve vidhinA ca na saMshayaH ||1-3-11
tasya udyataH tadA dakSho nAshAya amita vikramaH |
brahmarShIn purataH kR^itvA yAcitaH parameShThinA || 1-3-12
tato.abhisandhiM chakruste dakShastu parameShThinA |
kanyAyAM nArado mahyaM tava putro bhavediti ||1-3-13
tato dakShstu tAM prAdAt kanyAM vai parameShThine |
sa tasyAM nArado jaj~ne dakshashApabhayAdR^iShiH ||1-3-14
Those five thousand sons of daksha, who are renowned by the name of haryashvA-s, have been disenchanted towards worldly life by nArada, who harangued them with lingua esoterica. So they are lost to the world as their pursuit is a path towards almighty. There is no doubt about it. Then, the valiant daksha rose up against nArada avowing to eliminate him, whereby brahma, keeping the assemblages of sages ahead of him, went to daksha, and prayed him to not to wipe out nArada. Then sages came along with brahma have struck upon a deal between brahma and daksha, whereby daksha said to brahma, "your son nArada shall become my grandson, emerging from my daughter-like last sister-in-law..." And nArada agreed to it. Then, while daksha has given thirteen of his own daughters to sage kashyapa in marriage, he also gave his daughter-like last sister-in-law to sage kashyapa, and nArada emerged from her again, for fear of the curse of daksha.
kathaM vinAshitAH putrA nAradena maharShiNA |
prajApateH dvija shreSTha shrotum icChAmi tattvataH ||1-3-15
"How great sage nArada could make the sons of prajApati daksha adrift - this I would like to listen..."
dakShasya putrA haryashvA vivardhayiShavaH prajAH |
samAgatA mahAvIryA nAradaH tAn uvAca ha ||1-3-16
"When the highly energetic sons of daksha, namely harshyashvA-s, are about to engender further progeny, then sage nArada approached and said to them:
bAlishA bata yUyaM vai na asyA jAnIta vai bhuvaH |
pramANaM sraShTukAmAH stha prajAH prAcetasa-AtmajAH |
antar Urdhvam adhaH caiva kathaM srakshyatha vai prajAH ||1-3-17
"What a childishness of yours... you are unaware of the length and breadth, or of the inside out of the earth, on which you want to procreate... yet, oh, the legatees of prachetasA-s, you have embarked to further the procreation... but how...
Inside, outside, up above, down below, every where supreme soul is existing and he alone created all this... so you know him first, and then you can populate the earth created by him...
te tu tat vacanaM shrutvA prayAtAH sarvato disham |
pramANaM draSTukAmAH te gatAH prAchetasa-AtmajAH ||1-3-18
vAyoH anashanaM prApya gatAH te vai parAbhavam |
adya api na nivartante samudrebhya iva Apa gAH ||1-3-19
And they the sons of daksha, namely harshyashvA-s, coming under the influence of the words of nArada, viz. lingua esoterica, fled in every direction, in pell-mell to seek supreme soul. They remained beyond sustenance and later merged into the Supreme... they have not come back even today, like the non-returning rivers once rushed to ocean...
atyantikam kaivalyam gatAH - ityarthaH
haryashveShu atha naShTeShu dakShaH prAcetasaH punaH |
vairaNyAm eva putrANAM sahasram asR^ijat prabhuH ||1-3-20
When those five thousand sons, namely harshyashvA-s, are thus lost, then the son of prAchetasA-s, namely daksha, once again generated a thousand sons, called shabala-ashvA-s, through lady asikni, the daughter of vIraNa.
vivardhayiShavaste tu shabalAshvAH prajAH tadA |
pUrva uktaM vacanaM tAta nAradena eva noditAH ||1-3-21
When those thousand sons of daksha, named as shabala-ashvA-s, are also inclined to procreate, then sage nArada arrived again, and sermonised them too, as he has once sermonised their elder brothers.
anyonyam UcuH te sarve samyak Aha mahAmuniH |
bhrAtR^iNAM padavIM j~nAtuM gantavyaM na atra saMshayaH ||1-3-22
j~nAtvA pramANaM pR^ithvyAH ca sukhaM srakShyAmahe prajAH |
ekAgrAH svastha manasAH yathA avadat nu pUrvashaH ||1-3-23
And they all forgathered and said among themselves, "what this great sage has said is correct... we have to go seeking whereabouts of our brothers... no doubt about it... and on knowing everything about earth, then we can comfortably engender further species..."
te api tena eva mArgeNa prayAtAH sarvato disham
adyApi na nivartante samudrebhya iva ApagAH ||23||
And shabala-ashvA-s have also treaded the path of their elder brothers in all directions, and even today they have not returned, like the non-returning rivers once rushed to ocean.
naShTheShu shabalAshveShu dakShaH kruddho avadat vachaH |
nAradam nAshami iha iti garbha vAsam vasa iti ca|| 1-3-25
daksha is infuriated when shabala-ashva-s are also lost, and he said in this way, "I will make an end of nArada, and he has to suffer garbha narakam - durance vile of pregnancy ..."
tadA prabhR^iti vai bhrAtA bhrAtur anveShaNe nR^ipa |
prayAto nashyati kShipraM tat na kAryaM vipashcitA ||1-3-26
From then on a saying 'a brother shall not go in quest of his brother...' has come to stay, ... hence oh, king, wise ought not to do so, because the pursuer instantly gets strayed...
tAM cha api naShTAn vij~nAya putrAn dakShaH prajApatiH |
ShaShTiM bhUyaH asR^ijat kanyA vairaNyAm iti naH shrutam ||1-3-27
Ascertaining that the second batch of his sons, namely shabala-ashvA-s, are also lost, daksha prajApati then generated sixty daughters from lady asikni, the daughter of vIraNa... presuming that nArada may not harangue girls with esoteric teachings... thus we hear...
tAH tadA pratijagrAha bhAryArthaM kashyapaH prabhuH |
somo dharmaH ca kauravya tathA eva anye maharShayaH ||1-3-28
Then, oh, janamejaya, the legatee of kuru-s, the godly kashyapa prajApati, and soma, and dharma as well, and like that some other sages have wived those sixty daughters of daksha...
dadau sa dasha dharmAya kashyapAya trayodasha |
sapta-viMshatiM somAya catasro.ariShTanemine ||1-3-29
dve caiva bhR^igu-putrAya dve caiva a~Ngirase tathA |
dve kR^ishAshvAya viduShe tAsAM nAmAni me shR^iNu ||1-3-30
daksha gave ten of his daughters to dharma, thirteen to kashyapa prajApati, twenty seven to soma, four to ariShThanemi prajApati, two to the son of bhR^igu, two to angIrasa, two to sage kR^isha-ashva... now you know the names of those brides while I tell...
arundhatI vasuH yAmI lambA bhAnuH marut-vatI |
saMkalpA ca muhUrtA ca sAdhyA vishvA ca bhArata |
dharma-patnyo dasha tu etAH tAsu apatyAni me shruNu ||1-3-31
The ten brides of dharma are arundhati, vasu, yAmi, or, jAmi, langha, bhAnu, marutwati, samkalpa, muhUrta, sAdhya and vishwa, and now listen about their offspring...
There occurs another daksha prajApati in purANA-s who is reckoned as daksha I, and this daksha, father of the above ladies as daksha II. daksha I has emerged from the right thumb of brahma, and esteemed as one in the nava-brahma-s - nine brahma-s, as he is the brainchild of brahma. His wife is known as prasUti. viShNu purANa says that daksha I has twenty-four daughters, and he gave thirteen of them to dharma, who are: shraddha, lakshmi, dhR^iti, tuShTi, puShTi, medha, kriya, buddhi, lajja, vapu, shAnti, siddhi, kIrti. But, these are reckoned as dharma-dwArAH - gateways of dharma. Through them dharma is said to have obtained these sons, one in each wife: kAma, darpa, niyama, santoSha, lobha, shruta, daNDa, bodha, vinaya, vyavasAya, kshema, sukha, yasha.
Hence, daksha II is another entity. None has collated and consolidated this data, as yet.
The posterity of Daksha's daughters by Dharma are clearly allegorical personifications chiefly of two classes, one consisting of astronomical phenomena, and the other of portions or subjects of the ritual of the Vedas. vi. pu Wilson
vishvedevAH cha vishvAyAH sAdhyAn sAdhyA vyajAyata | 1-3-32 a
Lady vishwa gave birth to the vishve-deva-s...
These vishve-devA-s are not all the hosts of all the gods, but a cadre of ten gods who are specifically invoked during rituals to manes - pitR^i-yAga, shrAddha kAla, obsequial time, and it is believed that they enter the van of obsequial rites - shrArdha agram - they are vasu, bandhu-s; kratu, daksha-s; kAla, kAmA-s; dhuri, virochanA-s; purUrava, AdravA-s.
And lady sAadhya gave birth to the gods called sAdhya-s...
These are a sect of earliest gods, born out of chanda-s of veda-s, for recitation and promotion veda-s, later obsolete with veda-s.
marutvatyAM marutvantaH vasoH tu vasavaH tathA ||1-3-32 b
bhAnoH tu bhAnavaH tAta muhUrtAyA muhUrtajAH ||1-3-33 [single foot
lambAyAH caiva ghoSho.atha nAgavIthI ca yAmijA |
pR^ithivI-viShayaM sarvam arundhatyAM vyajAyata ||1-3-34
saMkalpAyAH tu sarvAtmA jaj~ne saMkalpa eva hi |
nAgavIthyAH cha yAminyA vR^iSha-lambA vyajAyata ||1-3-35
Lady marut-vati gave rise to marut-vanta - marut-gaNa-s.
They are: Avaha, the air called by this name who will be pervading in clouds, thunderbolts, rain, meteors; pravaha, air in solar orbit; samhava, air in lunar orbit; udvaha, air in galaxies; vivaha, air in planetary spheres; parivaha, air in the Seven-Sages sphere; varAvaha, air in north polar regions. These are otherwise called by names gagana, sparshana, vAyu, anila, prANa, prANeshvara, jIva. Each of the marut god has a batch of seven marut-s, thus they are forty-nine entities, in total.
Lady vasu gave rise to vasu-s. These vasu-s are detailed in the coming stanzas, bhiiShma is one from them.
Lady bhAnu gave rise to bhAnu-s.
These are the presiding deities of luminosity. They are dvAdasha AdityA-s, twelve self-luminous entities - dhAta, mitra, aryama, shakra, varuna, amshumAn, bhaga, vivasvanta, pUSha, savita, tvaShTa, viShNu. These will be AdityA-s in vaivasvata-manvantaram and they will become tuhita-s in chakshur-manvantaram. brahma created calling them as jaya-s, at the start of kalpa for furthering progeny. But, when they became reluctant to involve in biogenetic process, like the two batches of sons of daksha, brahma cursed them to take birth in every manvantaram. So, their births have become cyclic.
Lady muhUrta gave rise to gods called muhurtaka-s.
These are the gods presiding over the seconds, minutes and other digits of time - kShaNa Adi kAla bhAga abhimAna devatAH, and lady muhUrta also gave rise to one called jayanta - not covered in stanza.
Lady lamba, alias langha gave rise to god named ghoSha - a god having affinity with mantra-s - mantra-abhimAni devata; and lady yAmi, alias jAmi who herself is the presiding deity for serpentine routes and thick forests gave rise to a goddess named nAga-vIthi or, nAka-vIthi - nAka= heaven; vIthi= path; a goddess having affinity with the anfractuous path leading to heaven - svarga-mArga-abhimAnI-devatA.
And from lady arundhati all the earthbound purveyance like ghee, cattle, medicines - Ajya, pashu, oShadhi etc have emanated. From lady samkalpa there emerged the ubiquitous-soul called samkalpa, volition - mAnasika kriya abhimAni devaH - a deity who has affinity with volition. And from the daughter of yAmi, namely nAgavathi, there emerged a deity called vR^iSha-lamba, who in later time has become a deity for the abundant fruition of fruits, or who impels beings towards almighty.
The allegory in these births and marriages is attributable to vedic ritual yaj~na. All these gods like marut-s, Aditya-s, and agni from vasu-s et al are to be 'wedded' with the process of yajna, for which material is required, which arundhati has given. Then a sat samkalpa, good volition is required to perform yajna. If it is done properly, then the performer of yajna will tread the path of nAga-vIthi - an intricate path to heaven. Then the fruition, vR^iSha, will be abundant.
yA rAjan soma patnyaH tu dakShaH prAcetaso dadau |
sarvA nakShatra nAmnyastA jyautiShe parikIrtitAH ||1-3-36
Those who have been given to soma, oh, king, they all are well-known as constellation-wives of soma, or say the moon...
The names of 27 stations of moon, given to the moon as wives are: ashvini, bharani, kR^iittika, rohini, mR^igashira, Ardra, purnavasu, pushya, AshsleSa, magha, pUrva-phalguNi, uttara-phalguNi, hasta, chitra, swAti, vishAkha, anurAdha, jyeShTha, mUla, pUrva- AShADha, uttara- AShADha, shravaNa, dhaniShTha, shata-bhiSha, pUrva-bhAdra, uttara-bhAdra, and revati.
ye tu anye khyAtimanto vai devA jyotiH purogamAH |
vasavo aShTau samAkhyAtAH teShAM vakShyAmi vistaram ||1-3-37
Now I will detail about those highly regarded entities who antecede these star-wives of soma, and who are renowned as eight vasu-s...
Apo dhruvaH ca somaH ca dharaH caiva anila analau |
pratyUShaH ca prabhAsaH ca vasavo nAmabhiH smR^itAH ||1-3-38
Apa, dhruva, soma, dhara, anila, anala, pratyUSha, and prabhAsa are the sons of lady vasu, and they are reputed by a collective name aShTa-vasu-s, eight-vasu-s.
These are the elements located in the universe, eight of them. They are variously called.
dhara, dhruva, soma, Ahu, anila, agni, pratyUSha, prabhAsa - according to mahAbhArata. Here, dhara is substituted for Apa; Ahu is substituted for dharma or adhvara, as occurring in other purANa-s.
droNa, prANa, dhruva, arka, agni, doSa, vibhAvasu, dyu - according to mahAbhArata tAtparya nirNaya. 'Among eight vasu-s, the eighth one was known as dyu. He was also known as prabhAsa and vibhAvasu.' - AchArya pANDurangi.
The deities called Vasus, because, preceded by fire, they abound in splendour and might, are severally named Ápa, Dhruva, Soma, Dhava (fire), Anila (wind), Anala (fire), Pratyúsha (day-break), and Prabhása (light). - viShNu purANa. Wilson.
Vasus - A particular class of deities, eight in number, associated with Indra: they form one of the nine Ganas (classes of deities) mentioned in the Vedas. The Vasus are named: Apa (water), Dhruva (the pole-star), Soma (the Moon), Dhara or Dhava (the Earth), Anila (wind), Pavaka or Anala (fire), Prabhasa (dawn), Pratyusha (light). The Ramayana regards them as children of Aditi. A verse in The Laws of Manu (Manava-Dharma-Sastra) says: "The wise call our fathers Vasus" (Ii, p. 284). - Bhagavad-Gita, W. Q. Judge.
This class of deities-whose sphere of action are the terrestrial regions-- shatapatha brahmana 6:1:2:6
So, no two purANA-s agree with their names. And there is no use in deciphering the lexical meanings of their names, since these vedic entities and their functions are obsolete along with yajna-s and yAga-s. For eg dhruva is not the pole star, nor dhara is earth, nor soma the moon. But, we have to take the account of this group, because of the emrgence of bhIShma of mbh.
Apasya putro vaitaNDyaH shramaH shrAnto munistathA |
dhruvasya putro bhagavAn kAlo lokaprakAlanaH ||1-3-39
Likewise, the son of Apa is the indefatigable - shrama shrAnta- saint vaitanDya. And the son of dhruva is kAla, the time, who computes the time of worldly beings, and hence he is known as jaganniyanta - dictator of world.
Some editions say that there are four sons of Apa: vaitanDya, shrama, shAnta, and muni.
somasya bhagavAn varcA varcasvI yena jAyate |
dharasya putro draviNo huta havya vahaH tathA |
manoharAyAH shishiraH prANo.atha ramaNaH tathA ||1-3-40
The son of soma is godly varcha, the sheen, at whose beneficence living beings get a cosmetic sheen for their bodies. The son of dhara is draviNa, who is the carrier of burnt-oblations, huta-havya-vaha. And dhara from his second wife, called lady manohara, begot shishira, prANa, and ramaNa.
Some reckon huta-havya-vaha as the second son of dhara.
anilasya shivA bhAryA tasyAH putro manojavaH |
avij~nAtagatiH caiva dvau putrAu anilasya tu ||1-3-41
And anila had two sons from his wife lady shiva, who are mano-java, sprinter with thought-speed, and a-vij~nAta-gati, one whose course is unknown.
agni putraH kumAraH tu shara-stambe shriya-anvitaH |
tasya shAkho vishAkhaH ca naigameyaH ca pR^iSTha jAH ||1-3-42
apatyaM kR^ittikAnAM tu kArttikeya iti smR^itaH |
skandaH sanatkumAraH cha sR^iSTaH pAdena tejasaH ||1-3-43
The son of agni, the Firegod, is the highly glorious kumAra. or skanda, or kArtikeya who emerged in the garden of some herba benedicta plants with long stalks. Later to kumAra, his three younger brothers, called shAkha, vishAkha, and naigameya have also taken birth from agni. Because kumAra is nurtured by the a group of six stars, called kR^ittikA-s, he is also called kArtikeya. And he is also called as skanda or sanatkumAra. And agni gave rise to each of the four sons with one-fourth of his refulgence.
The bAla kANDa of vAlmIki rAmAyaNa details the episode of the birth of kumAra.
pratyUShasya viduH putra R^iSTiM nAmnA atha devalam |
dvau putrau devalasya api kShamAvantau tapasvinau ||1-3-44
And the vasu called pratyUSha gave rise to one son, named devala, and to one daughter named R^iShTi. This devala begot two sons who are compliant and kindhearted.
bR^ihaspateH tu bhaginI vara-strI brahmachAriNI |
yoga-siddhA jagat-kR^itsnam a-saktA vicacAra ha ||1-3-45
prabhAsasya cha sA bhAryA vasUnAm aShTamasya cha | 1-3-46 a
There is a sister of vashiSTha, called brahma-cAriNi, a best lady who acquired yogic transcendence, and who detachedly moved about the world. She is the wife of eigth vasu, namely prabhAsa.
vishvakarmA mahAbhAgaH tasyAM jaj~ne prajApatiH ||1-3-46 b
kartA shilpa-sahasrANAM tridashAnAM ca vArdhakiH |
bhUShaNAnAM ca sarveShAM kartA shilpavatAM varaH ||1-3-47
yaH sarvAsAM vimAnAni devatAnAM cakAra ha |
mAnuShAH ca upajIvanti yasya shilpaM mahAtmanaH ||1-3-48
And a prajApati called vishva-karma, a highly blessed and renowned architect, emerged from that lady brahma-cAriNi through lady prabhAsa. He is a divine architect who devised many constructions for gods, and thus he became a standard-bearer of architecture. That best one among all designers has designed ornaments to all of the gods, and he also devised aircrafts to all of them. And humans are perking up deriving architectural science from him.
The genealogical account of eight vasu-s is over. Next, the details about the offspring of kashyapa prajApati are taken up. The names of daksha's 13 daughters given to kashyapa are given at 2-48, and again said in coming stanzas. surabhi, whose progeny is taken up from the next verse, is the one of 13 daughters of daksha.
surabhI kashyapAt rudrAn ekAdasha vinirmame |
mahAdeva prasAdena tapasA bhAvitA satI ||1-3-49
ajaikapAd ahirbudhnyaH tvaShTA rudrAH ca bhArata |
tvaSTuH chaiva AtmajaH shrImAn vishvarUpo mahAyashAH ||1-3-50
Hallowed by her own ascesis and by the grace of mahadeva, the daughter of daskha prajApati, and the wife of kashyapa prajApati, lady surabhi, moulded eleven rudrA-s. Apart from those eleven rudrA-s, ajaika-pAd, ahir-budhnya, twaShTa, and ruda are also the progeny of surabhi, and tvaShTA's son is the highly glorious vishva-rUpa.
haraH ca bahu-rUpaH ca tryambakaH ca aparAjitaH |
vR^iShA-kapiH ca shambhuH ca kapardI raivataH tathA ||1-3-51
mR^iga-vyAdhaH ca sarpaH ca kapAlI ca vishAMpate | 1-3-52
Oh, king, the eleven rudrA-s are: hara, bahu-rUpa, tryambaka, aparAjita, vR^iSha-kapi, shambhu, kapardi, raivata, mR^iga-vyAdha, sarpa, and kapAli.
ekAdasha ete kathitA rudrAH tri-bhuvana-IshvarAH ||1-3-52 b
shataM tu evaM samAkhyAtaM rudrANAm amita-aujasAm |
purANe bharatashreSTha yaiH vyAptAH sa cara-acarAH ||1-3-53
Oh, king, purANA-s tell that these eleven highly resplendent rudrA-s, on manifesting themselves manifoldly, are pervading the subtle bodies of all sessile and mobile beings, and thus they became the controllers of three worlds.
As with the names of vasU-s, the names of rudrA-s also differ. The definition of word rudra is as below, in concerned texts:
rut duHkham duHka hetuH vA tat drAvayati naH prabhuH |
rudra iti uchyate tasmAt shivaH parama kAraNam ||
rudram - samsAra duHkham drAvayati iti rudraH - one who dispels the anguish of life. Here these rudrA-s are said to be numerous. shatam anantam bhavati, asankhyAkam, so the rudrA-s manifest in millions of forms in as many abodes, so says shata rudrIyam - sahasrANi sahasrasho ye rudrA adhi bhUmyAm... and they are there even in the food we eat and drink we consume... ye anneShu vividhyanti prAteShu pibato janAn... thus, wherever there is a problem, there exists a rudra to alleviate it, if only we pray him.
lokA bharatashArdUla kashyapasya nibodha me |
aditiH ditiH danuH caiva ariShTA surasA khashA ||1-3-54
surabhiH vinatA caiva tAmrA krodha-vashA irA |
kadruH muniH ca rAjendra tAsi apatyAni me shR^iNu ||1-3-55||
And oh, king, now you listen about the wives of kashyapa prajApati, and of their progeny, as I explain. His wives are: aditi, diti, danu, ariShTha, surasa, khasa, surabhi, vinata, tAmra, krodha-vasha, ira, kadru, muni.
Aditi, Diti, Danu, Kala, Danayu, Sinhika, Krodha, Pradha, Viswa, Vinata, Kapila, Muni, and Kadru. - mahAbhArata.
pUrva manvantare shreShThA dvA-dasha Asan surottamAH |
tuShitA nAma te anyonyam UcuH vaivasvate antare ||1-3-56
upasthite ati-yashasi cAkShuShasya antare manoH |
hitArthaM sarva=sattvAnAM samAgamya parasparam ||1-3-57
In the previous time-cycle, called the glorious cAkshuSha manvantara, there used to be twelve best gods named tuShita-s. At the end of that cAkshuSha time-cycle and at the start of vaivasvata time-cycle, they came together to discuss about their futurity in the service of living beings. And they said this to one another...
Agachchhata drutaM devA aditiM sampravishya vai |
manvantare prasUyAmaH tat naH shreyo bhaviShyati ||1-3-58
"Come quickly, oh, tuShita gods, we have to get into lady aditi and take birth in the coming vaivasvta time-cycle, which will be expedient for all of us..." So said tuShitA-s to one another.
evam uktvA tu te sarvaM cAkShuShasya antare manoH |
mArIcAt kashyapAt jAtAH te adityA dakSha-kanyayA ||1-3-59
On resolving like this, all of those twelve tuShitA gods took birth from the daughter of daksha, namely aditi, through the son of marIchi, namely kashyapa, at end of cAkshuSha manvantaram.
tatra viShNush ca shakrash ca jaj~nAte punar eva hi
aryamA caiva dhAtA ca tvaShTA pUShA tathaiva ca ||1-3-60
vivasvAn savitA caiva mitro varuNa eva ca
aMsho bhagash cAtitejA AdityA dvAdasha smR^itAH ||1-3-61
Then, viShNu [tri-vikrama, vAmana], shakra [indra], aryamA, dhAtA, tvaShTA, pUShA, vivasvAn, savitA, mitra, varuNa, amsha, and highly resplendent bhaga - these twelve have emerged from aditi who are called dvAdasha AdityA-s, the twelve self-luminous entities, thus we hear...
These are sempiternal vedic gods functioning in three vaults of heaven, dyau, antarIksham, and rodasI, functioning like a maintenance squad of whole universe, where that universe itself is enveloped by those three vaults. They are to be known by their functions but not by anthropomorphic means. They may function as individuals, or in a group, either twosome, or trisome, or all, only to increase the power of agni - the original fire. It is like employing many bit, six-bit, three-bit lasers where one bit is enough, in view of efficiency syndrome.
As said of the Adityas by Roth: "they are neither sun, nor moon, nor stars, nor dawn, but the eternal sustainers of this luminous life which exists as it were behind all these phenomena." from: Helena Blavatsky.
But, these gods and their functions have been toned down in purANic accounts, because the vedic accounts of these gods and their functions have become overhead-transmission. There are numerous web pages depicting these accounts. Hence they are not reiterated here.
chAkshuSasya antare pUrvam Asan ye tuSitAH surAH |
vaivasvate antare te vai AdityA dvAdasha smR^itAH ||1-3-62
It is said that these gods who existed as tuShita-s gods in chAkshuSa manvantaram, have reoccurred as twelve Aditya-s in vaivasvata manvantarm...
sapta viMshatiH yAH proktAH soma-patnyo atha su-vratAH |
tAsAm apatyAni abhavat dIptAni amita-tejasAM ||1-3-63
The twenty-seven ritzy stars who are said to be the wives of soma have given rise to divers scintillant starlets.
ariShTanemi patnInAm apatyAni iha ShoDasha |
bahu-putrasya viduShaH catasro vidyutaH smR^itAH ||1-3-64
The scholar ariShTha-nemi, besides having many other offspring, begot sixteen children from the said four wives, like vidyut et al...
Where bahu-putra is to be taken as attribute of ariShTha-nemi - nIlakaNTha.
Those four wives are vidyut [lightning], ashani [thunderbolt], megha [black-cloud], and rohita-indra-dhanuS [curveless rainbow]. This has a different reading, said in next verse.
None of the authorities are more specific on the subject of Arisht́anemis' progeny. In the Mahábhárata this is said to be another name of Kaśyapa. The Bhágavata substitutes Tárksha for this personage, said by the commentator to be likewise another name of Kaśyapa. His wives are, Kadru, Vinatá, Patangi, and Yáminí, mothers of snakes, birds, grasshoppers, and locusts. - vi. pu., HH Wilson
pratya~Ngirasa jAH shreShThA R^ico brahma-rShi-satkR^itAH |
kR^ishAshvasya tu rAjarSherdevapraharaNAni ca ||1-3-65
And those that are born to pratyangIrasa have become the excellent Rik-hymns of Rigveda winning the high acclaim of brahma-sages. And the progeny of kingly sage kR^isha-ashva are the assault weapons.
ya angIrAH shaunako hotrA bhUtvA bhArgavaH shaunako bhavat iti smR^iteH | tatra pratyangIrA mantrAH shAnti karA prasiddhAH | praharaNAni - vajra Adi abhimAninyo devatAH ... atharva vedo api shaunakIya shAkhA | nk
Aristanemi, who married four daughters of Daksha, gave birth to 16 sons. Bahuputra, who married two daughters of Daksha, gave birth to four sons called Vidyuts (lightnings). Among them, Pratyangiras composed grand Riks (verses of the Rig Veda) that are honoured by the Brahmin sages. Brusaswa, the Divine sage who married two daughters of Daksha, gave birth to sons called the Praharanas (weapons). vishnu purANa by Dr.E.Krishnamacharya - mAShTAru
The hymns of the Atharvaveda are called Angirasas, and the descendants of Angiras were specially charged with the protection of sacrifices performed in accordance with the Atharvaveda. From this cause, or from their being associated with the descendants of Atharvan, they were called distinctively Atharvangirasas. Dawson
The Richas, or verses, thirty-five in number, addressed to presiding divinities, denominated Pratyangirasas. The Bhágavata calls the wives of Anginas, Swadhá and Satí, and makes them the mothers of the Pitris and the Atharvan Veda severally. vi. pu - Wilson
ete yuga-sahasra-ante jAyante punaH eva hi |
sarva devagaNAH tAta trayaH-triMshattu kAmajAH ||1-3-66
Oh, my dear king, thus these thirty-three groups of devA-s will be re-emerging after the completion of one thousand kalpa-s as the brainchildren of almighty.
teShAm api ca rAjendra nirodha utpattiH ucyate ||1-3-67
yathA sUryasya gagana udaya astamane iha |
evaM deva-nikAyAH te sambhavanti yuge yuge ||1-3-68
Oh, king, as to how the sun is dawning and dusking in the sky, so also it is said that these gods too lapse only to reoccur... thus, though their souls are imperishable, their entities will be resurgent era after era..
devAnAm sharIrANi eva jAyante, nanu, tat upahita AtmA; ghaTa AkAshAdi vat.
dityAH putra-dvayaM jaj~ne kashyapAt iti naH shrutam |
hiraNya-kashipuH caiva hiraNya-akShaH ca vIryavAn ||1-3-69
siMhikA ca abhavat kanyA vipracitteH parigrahaH | 1-3-70 a
Lady diti, the other wife of kAshyapa, begot a couple of sons named hiraNya-kashipu and the courageous hiraNya-aksha, besides a daughter named lady simhika, whom viprachitti had espoused.
saiMhikeyA iti khyAtAH tasyAH putrA mahAbalAH |
gaNaiH ca saha rAjendra dasha-sAhasram ucyate ||1-3-70
teShAM putrAH ca pautrAH ca shatashaH atha sahasrashaH |
asa~NkhyAtA mahAbAho hiraNyakashipoH shR^iNu ||1-3-71
Oh, great king, there emerged a groups of ten thousand highly mighty sons, known as saimhikeyA-s, or simhikeyA-s, from this lady simhika... and their sons and grandsons are in hundreds and thousands, say innumerable... and now oh, great king, listen about the progeny of hiraNya-kashipu...
hiraNyakashipoH putrAH catvAraH prathita-aujasaH |
anuhrAdaH ca hrAdaH ca prahrAdaH caiva vIryavAn ||1-3-72
saMhrAdaH ca caturthaH AbhUt hrAda putro hradaH tathA | 1-3-73 a
hiraNya-kashipu of great vigour begot four sons, namely anuhrAda, hrAda, prahrAda and samhrAda is the fourth one... hrAda's son is hrada...
prahrAda or prahlAda, anuhrAda or anuhlAda, hrAda or hlAda, samhlAda or samhrAda - are interchangeable names, as the letter ra and la are interchangeable- ra Da la yo abhedaH
saMhrAda putraH sundaH ca nisundaH tau ubhau smR^itau ||1-3-73 b
anuhrAda sutau hi AyuH shivi kAlaHtathaiva ha |
virocanaH ca prAhrAdir balir jaj~ne virocanAt ||1-3-74
samhrAda's sons are sunda and nishunda; anuhrAda's sons are Ayu, shibi, and kAla; prahrAda's son is virochana, and virochana's son is bali...
baleH putra-shataM tu AsIt bANa jyeShThaM narAdhipa |
dhR^itarAShTraH ca sUryaH ca candramAH ca indra-tApanaH ||1-3-75
kumbhanAbho gardabhAkShaH kukShiH iti evam AdayaH | 1-3-76 a
Oh, king, sons of bali are hundred, and starting from the eldest one named bANa, some of them are: dhrita-rAShTra; sUrya; chandra; indra-tApana; kumbha-nAbha; gardabha-aksha, and kukshi...
bANaH teShAm atibalo jyeShThaH pashupateH priyaH ||1-3-76 b
purA kalpe tu bANena prasAdya umA-patiM prabhum |
pArshvato vihariShyAmi iti evaM yAcito varaH ||1-3-77
Highly formidable bANa is the eldest of them all, and a favoured one for god shiva, pashu-pati... because, in an earlier era bANa prayed for the mercy of that lord, umA-pati, supplicating that "I should always be moving in your flank..." and he got it...
bANasya ca indra-damano loihityAm upapadyata
gaNAH tathA asurA rAjan shata-sAhasra-sammitAH ||1-3-78
And bANa begot indra-damana from lady lohita, and indra-damana begot hundreds and thousands of asura orders.
hiraNyAkSha sutAH pa~nca vidvAMsaH su mahA balAH |
jharjharaH shakuniH caiva bhUta-santApanaH tathA
mahA-nAbhaH ca vikrAntaH kAla-nAbhaH tathaiva ca ||1-3-79
hiraNyAkSha's sons are five, who are highly read and highly mighty, and they who agonise living beings - bhUta-santApanaH - are: jharjharaH, or jharjhala, shakuni, bhUta-santApana, mahA-nAbha, vikrAnta, kAla-nAbha...
abhavan danu putrAH ca shataM tIvra-parAkramAH |
tapasvino mahA-vIryAH prAdhAnyena nibodha tAn ||1-3-80
Lady danu, the third wife of kashyapa prajApati, gave rise to hundreds of highly valiant asura-s who are rigorous in ascesis and outrageous in invasions... I will tell you about some important ones among them...
dvimUrdhA shakunishcaiva tathA shankushirA vibhuH |
sha~NkukarNo virAdhashca gaveSThI dundubhiH tathA |
ayomukhaH shambarash ca kapilo vAmanas tathA || 1-3-81
mArIcir maghavAMsh caiva shankushirA vR^ikaH |
vikShobhaNash ca ketush ca ketuvIryashatahradau || 1-3-82
indrajit sarvajit [satyajit] caiva vajranAbhas tathaiva ca |
mahAnAbhaH ca vikrAntaH kAlanAbha tathaiva ca || 1-3-83
eka-cakro mahAbAhuH tArakash ca mahAbalaH
vaishvAnaraH pulomA ca vidrAvaNa mahAshirau || 1-3-84
svarbhAnur vR^iShaparvA ca tuNDaH ca mahAsuraH |
sUkshmaH ca atichandrasca UrNanAbho mahAgiriH || 1-3-85
asi-lomA ca keshI ca shaThaH cabalako madaH |
tathA gagana-mUrdhA ca kumbhanAbho mahAsuraH || 1-3-86
pramado mayaH ca kupatho hayagrIvaH ca vIryavAn |
vaisR^ipaH ca savirUpAkshaH supatho atha harA harau || 1-3-87
hiraNyakashipuH caiva shata-mAyaH ca shambaraH |
sharabhaH ca shalabhaH caeva vipracittiH ca vIryavAn || 1-3-88
Those important demons are: dvi-mUrdha, shakuni, shanku-shira, vibhu, sha~Nku-karNa, virAdha, gaveSThI, dundubhi, ayo-mukha, shambara, kapila, vAmana, mArIci, maghavAn, shanku-shira, vR^ika, vikShobhaNa, ketu, ketu-vIrya shata-hrada, indrajit, sarvajit [satyajit], vajra-nAbha, mahA- nAbha, vikrAnta, kAla-nAbha, eka-cakra, mahA-bAhu, and greatly mighty tAraka, vaishvAnara, puloma, vidrAvaNa, svarbhAnu, vR^iSha-parv, tuNDa, sUkshma, ati-chandra, UrNa-nAbha, mahA-giri, asi-lomA, keshI, shaTha, balaka, madaH, gagana -mUrdhA, kumbha-nAbha, pramada, maya, ku-patha, hayagrIva, vaisR^ipa, virUpa-aksha, su-patha, hara, ahara, hiraNyakashipu; and he who knows umpteen number of mAyA -s - that shambara; sharabha, shalabha, and the mighty vipracitti...
In Hindu asuralogy, names repeat, recur and overlap, and to say who is who, a lot many scripts are to be consulted.
ete sarve danoH putrAH kashyapAy abhijaj~nire |
vipracitti pradhAnAH te dAnavAH su-mahA-balAH ||1-3-89
eteShAM yat apatyaM tu tat na shakyaM narAdhipa |
prasaMkhyAtuM mahIpAla putra-pautra Adi anantakam ||1-3-90
All these sons of danu emerged from kashyapa prajApati... And oh, king, unenumerable are the mighty sons and grandsons of the sons of lady danu as they flourished innumerably... but, among them one called viprachit, alias vipra-jit is an important one...
svarbhAnoH tu prabhA kanyA pulomnaH cha sutA trayam |
upadAnavI hayashirAH sharmiShThA vArShaparvaNI ||1-3-91
svar-bhAnu begot three girls named upadAnavi, haya-shira, and prabhA from lady puloma... and vR^iSha-parva begot a damsel named sharmiShTha...
pulomA kAlikA caiva vaishvA-nara sute ubhe |
bahu apatye mahAvIrye marIceH tu parigrahaH ||1-3-92
tayoH putra sahasrANi ShaShTiM dAnava-nandanAn |
catur-dasha-shatAn anyAn hiraNyapura vAsinaH ||1-3-93
mArIciH janayAmAsa mahatA tapasAnvitaH |
vaishvA-naraH begot two damsels named puloma and kAlika who married the great mighty marIchi who is already with multitudes of progeny, and begot sixty-thousand children that are a delight to dAnava race; further, there is a batch of one thousand and four hundred sons generated by marIchi with his great ascesis... all these sixty-one thousand and four hundred dAnavA-s are the residents of a city called hiraNya-pura...
paulomAH kAlakeyAH ca dAnavAH te mahAbalAH ||1-3-94
avadhyA devatAnAM hi hiraNya-pura-vAsinaH |
kR^itAH pitAmahena ajau nihatAH savyasAcinA ||1-3-95
And these sixty-one thousand and four hundred dAnavA-s, the residents of hiraNya-pura, are known by their matriarchal label called pauloma-kAlakeyA-s, and by the grace of brahma these are blessed to be unkillable even by gods, yet they perished at the hand of savya-sAchi, alias arjuna in the final war...
prabhAyA nahushaH putraH sR^i~NjayaH cha shachI sutaH |
pUruM jaj~ne atha sharmiSThA duSyantam upadAnavI ||1-3-96
And lady prabha begot nahuSha as her son; lady sachI's son is sri~Njaya; lady sharmiShTha gave rise to a son called puru, and lady upadAnavI to her son called duShyanta...
tato.apare mahAvIryA dAnavAH tu ati-dAruNAH |
siMhikAyAm atha utpannA vipracitteH sutAH tadA ||1-3-97
daitya-dAnava-saMyogAt jAtAH tIvra-parAkramAH |
Then, other highly mighty and highly atrocious dAnavA-s have emerged owing to the intermarriage of daitya-s and dAnavA-s, among whom the highly impertinent sons of lady simhika begotten through an important dAnava, namely vipra-chit, are noteworthy...
saiMhikeyA iti khyAtAH trayo-dasha mahAbalAH ||1-3-98
vaMshyaH shalyaH ca balinau nabhaH caiva mahAbalaH |
vAtApirnamucishcaiva ilvalaH khasR^imastathA ||1-3-99
a~njiko narakaH caiva kAla-nAbhaH tathaiva ca |
shukraH potaraNaH chaiva vajra-nAbhaH cha vIryavAn ||1-3-100
rAhuH jyeSThaH tu teSAM vai sUrya-chandra-vimardanaH |
mUkaH chaiva tuhuNDaH cha hrAda-putrau babhUvatuH ||1-3-101
mArIchaH sunda-putraH cha tADakAyAM vyajAyata |
shivamANastathA chaiva surakalpashcha vIryavAN || 1-3-102
ete vai dAnavAH shreShThA danuvaMshavivardhanAH |
teShAM putrAshca pautrAshca shatasho.atha sahasrashaH ||1-3-103
Thirteen indomitable dAnavA-s known as saimhikeyA-s have come forth
bearing their mother's name as title, and they are: vaMsha, shalya, nabha,
vAtApi, namuchi, ilvalaH, svasR^ima,
a~njika, naraka, kAla-nAbha, shuka, potaraNa, vajra-nAbha. And, rAhu, the blight of moon and sun, is the eldest one...
And hrada's sons are mUka-asura and tuhuNDa-asura... while sunda begot dAnavA-s called mArIcha, shivamAna, and sura-kalpa through dAnavi tATaka... These are the best dAnavA-s, the enhancers of lady danu's progeny, and their sons and grandsons multiplied in hundreds and thousands...
saMhrAdasya tu daityasya nivAta-kavacAH kule |
samutpannAH sutapasA mahAnto bhAvita-AtmanaH ||1-3-104
tisraH koTyaH sutAH teShAM maNi-matyAM nivAsinAm |
teSvavadhyAH tu devAnAm arjunena nipAtitAH ||1-3-105
The daitya called samhrAda, the son of hiraNya-kashipu, begot three crore sons called ni-vAta-kavachA-s, who are highly overpowering, greatly ascetic, and elevated souls, and who living in maNi-mati-puram used to trounce devA-s... but, arjuna trounced and eliminated them all...
ShaT sutAH su-mahA-sattvAH tAmrAyAH parikIrtitAH |
kAkI shyenI ca bhAsI ca sugrIvI shuci gR^idhrikA ||1-3-106
And, it is said that lady tAmra, the wife of kashyapa prajApati, gave rise to six highly endowed sons, namely: kAkI, shyenI, bhAsI, sugrIvI, shuchi. gR^idhrika...
kAkI kAkAn ajanayat ulUKI prati-ulUkakAn |
shyenI shyenAM tu athA bhAsI bhAsAn gR^idhrAMshca gR^idhryapi ||1-3-107
shuciH audakAn pakShi-gaNAn sugrIvI tu paran-tapa |
ashvAn uShTrAn gardabhAM shca tAmrA-vaMshaH prakIrtitaH ||1-3-108
kAkI gave rise to crows, owls and owlets; shyeni gave rise to hawks; bhAsI to sparrowhawks; gR^idhri to vultures; shuchi begot aquatic birds; and sugrîivî begot horses, camels, and mules - and these are all known as the offspring of tAmra...
vinatAyAH tu putrau dvAu aruNo garuDaH tathA |
suparNaH patatAM shreShTho dAruNaH svena karmaNA ||1-3-109
Lady vinata gave rise to two famous sons, aruNa and garuDa... of those two, garuDa with formidable deeds, has become the lord of birds...
The other son of vinata called anUru, or aruNa, a legless entity became the charioteer of Sungod, while gatuDa is the eagle-vehicle of viShNu.
surasAyAH sahasraM tu sarpANAm amita-aujasAm |
aneka-shirasAM tAta khe-carANAM mahAtmanAm ||1-3-110
And lady surasa gave rise to thousands of highly mighty reptiles with numerous hoods who can travel even in sky...
kAdraveyAH cha balinaH sahasram amita-ojasaH |
suparNa vashagA nAgA jaj~nire an-eka-mastakAH ||1-3-111
teShAM pradhAnAH satataM sheSha vAsuki takShakAH |
Lady kadru also gave rise to numerous many-hooded serpents that are always cringing under the power of garuDa... among those multi-hooded serpents important ones are sheSha, vAsuki, and takShaka...
airAvato mahA-padmaH kambala ashva-tarAu ubhau ||1-3-112
elA-patraH tathA sha~NkhaH karkoTaka dhanaMjayau |
mahA-nIla mahAkarNau dhR^itarAShTra balAhakau ||1-3-113
kuharaH puShpa-daMShTraH ca dur-mukhaH su-mukhaH tathA |
sha~NkhaH ca sha~Nkha-pAlaH ca kapilo vAmanaH tathA ||1-3-114
nahuShaH sha~Nkha-romA ca maNiH iti evam AdayaH |
teShAM putrAshca pautrAshca garuDena nipAtitAH ||1-3-115
Lady kadru's other multi-hooded serpent-sons are: airAvata, mahA-padma, kambala, ashva-tara, elA-patra, sha~Nkha, karkoTaka, dhanaM-jaya, mahA-nIla, mahA-karNa, dhR^ita-rAShTra, valAhaka, kuhara, puShpa-daMShTra, dur-mukha, su-mukha, sha~Nkha, sha~Nkha-pAla, kapila, vAmana, nahuSha, sha~Nkha-roma, maNi and others... and garuDa made their sons and grandsons as his pray...
catur-dasha-sahasrANi krUrANAm uraga ashinAm [pavana ashinAm] |
gaNaM krodhavashaM viddhi tasya sarve ca daMShTriNaH |1-3-116
And there is a group of fourteen thousand reptiles that eat their own progeny... know that group as krodha-vasham, in which all are with deadly fangs...
A snake eats its own eggs as soon as it lays them - uraga ashina - in one meaning; and snakes that thrive on air - pavana ashina - is another reading.
sthala-jAH pakShiNaH ab-jAH ca dharAyAH prasavAH smR^itAH | 1-3-117 a
Mountains emerging on earth, mountains with wings, and the mountains growing undersea - these three kinds of mountains are said to be the children of dhara...
gAH tu vai janayAmAsa surabhiH mahiShAM tathA ||1-3-117 b
irA vR^ikSha-latA vallIH tR^iNa-jAtIH ca sarvashaH |
Lady surabhi gave rise to cows and buffalos; lady ira gave rise to plants, creepers, runners, and grass of every kind...
khashA tu yakSha rakShAMsi muniH apsarasaH tathA ||1-3-118
ariShTA tu mahA-sattvAn gandharvAn amita-ojasaH |
And lady khasa gave rise to yakSha-s and rakShA-s; whereas lady muni gave rise to apsara-s; and lady ariShTa gave rise to highly self-actualised and mighty gandharvA-s...
ete kashyapa dAyAdAH kIrtitAH sthANu ja~NgamAH |1-3-119
teShAM putrAshca pautrAshca shatasho.atha sahasrashaH |
These sessile and mobile beings are the offspring of kashyapa whose sons and grandsons flourished in hundreds and thousands...
eSha manvantare tAta sargaH svArociShe smR^itaH ||1-3-120
This creation is known as, oh, sire, svArochiSha manvantara sarga...
vaivasvate tu mahati vAruNe vitate kratau |
juhvAnasya brahmaNo vai prajAsarga iha ucyate ||1-3-121
Then, in vaivasvata manvantara a vedic-ritual oriented to wards varuNa is conducted, in which oblation is made into ritual fire to brahma aiming at his grace for evolving human race... let us now speak of it...
pUrvaM yatra tu brahma-rShIn utpannAn sapta mAnasAn |
putratve kalpayAmAsa svayam eva pitAmahaH ||1-3-122
At the outset, brahma gave rise to seven brahma-rishi-s as his brainchildren, and acknowledged them as his own progeny...
tato virodhe devAnAM dAnavAnAM ca bhArata |
ditiH vinaShTa putrA vai toShayAmAsa kashyapam ||1-3-123
tAM kashyapaH prasanna-AtmA samyak ArAdhitastayA |
Latter, oh, bhArata, dwindled is the progeny of lady diti when conflict among devA-s and dAnavA-s arose as devA-s exterminated dAnavA-s. But on her rendering good services to sage kAshyapa, he has become compassionate and accorded a boon to her...
vareNa chchhandayAmAsa sA ca vavre varaM tataH ||1-3-124
putram indra vadha arthAya samartham amitaujasam |
Thus, lady diti sought a boon from kashyapa saying, "I shall have a capable son who can slay indra..."
sa ca tasyai varaM prAdAt prArthitaM sumahAtapAH ||1-3-125
dattvA ca varam avyagro mArIcaH tAm abhAShata |
bhaviSyati sutaH te ayaM yadi evaM dhArayiSyasi ||1-3-126
indraM suto nihantA te garbhaM vai sharadAM shatam |
yadi dhArayase shaucaM tatparA vratam AsthitA ||1-3-127
And kashyapa gave her that drastic boon saying, "you will bear a son who is capable of eliminating indra, provided you undertake intense ascesis for a hundred year period duly following utmost cleanness..."
tatha iti abhihito bhartA tayA devyA mahAtapAH
dhArayAmAsa garbhaM tu shuciH sA vasudhAdhipa ||1-3-128
Acknowledging this she bore pregnancy accorded by kashya and remained expectant with utter cleanliness...
tataH abhyupAgamat dityAM garbham-AdhAya kashyapaH |
rochayan vai gaNaH hreShThaM devAnAm amitaujasam ||1-3-129
tejaH saMbhR^itya durdharSham avadhyam amaraiH api |
jagAma parvatAyaiva tapase saMshita-vrataH ||1-3-130
Thus kashyapa who brought forth highly effective assemblages of gods has impregnated her with his highly effective radiance, which is unassailable and indestructible even to gods, and went away from there to continue his ascesis on high mountains...
tasyAH caiva antara-prepsuH abhavat pAka-shAsanaH |
Une varSha-shate ca asyA dadarsha antaram acyutaH ||1-3-131
In the meanwhile the unswerving indra who is always on the hunt for a leeway, found a breach in her ascesis, just before the completion of her hundred year vow.
akR^itvA pAdayoH shaucaM ditiH shayanam Avishat |
nidrAM ca kArayAmAsa tasyAM kukShiM pravishya saH ||1-3-132
On certain occasion lady diti went to bed without washing her feet, and then indra entered her womb with his weapon thunderbolt, and induced sleepiness on her...
vajra-pANiH tato garbhaM saptadhA taM nyakR^intata |
sa pAThyamAno vajreNa garbhaH tu pra-ru-roda ha ||1-3-133
Then, indra dissected her foetus into seven pieces with his thunderbolt, while she wailed a lot when her foetus is thus cut into pieces...
mA rodIH iti taM shakraH punaH punaH atha abravIt |
And indra repeatedly said, 'mA ruda, rA ruda...' 'don't cry, don't cry...'
saH abhavat saptadhA garbhaH tam indro ruShitaH punaH ||1-3-134
eka-ekaM saptadhA cakre vajreNa iva ari-karshanaH |
maruto nAma devAH te babhUvuH bharatarSabha ||1-3-135
yathA uktaM vai maghavatA tathaiva maruto.abhavan |
devA eko-na-pa~ncAshat sahAyA vajra-pANinaH ||1-3-136
Again that eliminator of enemies, indra, wrathfully cut each piece of foetus into seven with his weapon thunderbolt... and all the forty-nine pieces of that foetus latter became gods called marut-gaNA-s, as has been verbalised by indra when he said 'mA ruda, ma+rut= marut' and all of them have become the assistants of same indra - at the request of their mother...
More details of this dissection are there in bAla kANDa of Valmiki Ramayana.
teShAm evaM pravR^iddhAnAM bhUtAnAM janamejaya|
rocayan vai gaNa shreShThaM devAnAm amitaujasAm ||1-3-137
nikAyeShu nikAyeShu hariH prAdAt prajApatIn |
And when the created beings are multiplying, oh, janamejaya, shrI hari nominated prajApati-s in every sector, in order to enrich the lambency of self-effulgent gods...
kramashaH tAni rAjyAni pR^ithu pUrvANi bhArata ||1-3-138
And oh, bharata, that shrIhari made pR^ithu as first emperor and from then forward kings and kingdoms are coming on and on...
sa hariH puruSho vIraH kR^iShNo jiShNuH prajApatiH |
parjanyaH tapanaH anantaH tasya sarvam idaM jagat ||1-3-139
As such, shrIhari is puruSha - Prime Person; vIra - All-Mighty; kR^iShNa - incarnate kR^iShNa; jiShNu - All- Victorious; likewise he alone is parjanya - medha - intellect; tapana - scorcher - sun; ananta - avyakta - infinite; and he alone is prajApati - whatever the sphere of action may be...
bhUta sargam imaM samyak jAnato bharatarSabha |
na AvR^ittibhayam asti iha para-loka bhayaM kutaH ||1-3-140
" Oh, best one among bharata-s, whoever knows about this creation of the beings, in its entirety together with the legend of the birth of marut-gaNa-s, he does not have the fear of rebirth, as such, where is the question of fear about his attaining higher worlds...
iti shrImahAbhArate khilabhAge harivaMshe harivaMshaparvaNi marudutpattikathane tR^itIyo.adhyAyaH || 3 ||
Thus, this is the third chapter of first canto called harivamsha-parva, in harivamsha-purANa, the sequel of mahAbhArata, narrating the emergence of marut-gaNA-s, the Wind-gods.
|Prev ch 2: emergence of daksha||contents||Next ch 4 : Emergence of pR^ithu|
verse-transliteration: ks ramachandran|
< ramachandran_ksr @ yahoo.ca >
verse-rendition advisor : gilles schaufelberger|
< schaufel @ wanadoo.fr >
page maintained by : harindranath avaroth :|
< harindranath_a @ yahoo.com >
translation : desiraju hanumanta rao|
< desirajuhrao @ yahoo.com >
|E&OE - content is subject to revision : dated 7-10-07|