During the period of working on this chapter arcives.org has released a rough copy of MN Dutt’s translation of harivamsham, say on 24-11-07. As is our wont to bring back the classics and classical translations too, if they have gone out of sight, we will be incorporating the gist of verses rendered by MN Dutt, as and when required.
Not all the gist-paragraphs are usable because of difference in version, since Dutt has used bAngla version of harivamsham, whereas we are following the text chitra-shala edition. This, of course, will be done by recasting, paraphrasing, or rewording the Victorian language to that of present day made-easy-english – though it is cumbersome than doing afresh. We cannot loose certain beautiful expressions of those days, or of the pastmasters.
This has been done earlier while working on raghuvamsha of kAlidAsa, where the gist of certain verse had been reproduced / said in the expression of Krishnarao Madvarao Joglekar, whose translation of raghuvamsha is altogether extinct in print medium, and whose style is no more.
A humble caveat
Pundits familiar with MN Dutt’s translation of this work, therefore, may not knit their eyebrows if they find those lines in here, because our aim is to present a compilation, but not to gain any luminary status of translators by doing afresh. However, the gist paragraphs drawn from his work will be stamped with his name, like [MN Dutt, recast], or with an asterisk, or some such thing, to escape from the sin of plagiarisation, and to avoid exclamations like “unblushingly copied...” etc.
pUroH vaMsham ahaM brahma~n shrotum ichChAmi tattvataH |
druhyoH cha anoH yadoH chaiva turvasoH cha pR^ithak-pR^ithak || 1-31-1
vR^iShNi vaMsha prasa~Ngena svaM vaMshaM pUrvam eva tu |
vistareNa anu-pUrvyA cha tat bhavAn vaktum arhati || 1-31-2
“O, brahamana, I would like to listen about the dynasty of king puru in its actuality... and a lot about the legends of druhyu, anu, yadu, and turvasu... previously you have touched upon my dynasty in the course of narrating about vR^iShNi dynasty... but it will be apt of you to expand on it chronologically...
shR^iNu pUroH mahArAja vaMsham uttama-pauruSham |
vistareNa anupUrvyA cha yatra jAto.asi pArthiva || 1-31-3
hanta! te kIrtayiShyAmi pUror vaMsham anuttamam |
druhyoH cha anoH yadoH chaiva turvasoH narAdhipa || 1-31-4
“Oh, yes... then listen about the dynasty of puru, in which you have taken birth, as I expatiate and chronologise that legend... now let me tell you about the unexcelled puru dynasty and later cover about the legends of druhyu, anu, yadu, and turvasu et al...
pUroH putro mahAvIryo rAjA AsIt
prachinvAn tu sutaH tasya yaH prAchIm ajayat disham || 1-31-5
prachinvataH pravIro abhUt manasyuH tasya cha AtmajaH |
rAjA cha abhayado nAma manasyoH abhavat sutaH || 1-31-6
tathaiva abhayadasya AsIt sudhanvA tu mahIpatiH |
sudhanvano bahu-gavaH shaMyAtiH tasya cha AtmajaH || 1-31-7
shaMyAteH tu rahasyAtI raudrashvaH tasya cha AtmajaH |
puru’s son is the highly valiant prAchInavAn who conquered eastren quarter... from him the patrilineal princes are like this: prAchInavAn → pravIra → manasyu → abhayada -> sudhanva → bahu-gava → shaMyAti → rahasyAti → raudrashva...
raudrAshvasya ghR^itAchyAM vai dasha apsarasi sUnavaH || 1-31-8
R^icheyuH prathamaH teShAM kR^ikaNeyuH tathaiva cha |
kakSheyuH sthaNDileyuH cha sannateyuH tathaiva cha || 1-31-9
dashArNeyuH jaleyuH cha sthaleyuH cha mahAyashAH |
dhaneyuH cha vaneyuH cha putrikAH cha dasha striyaH || 1-31-10
rudrA shUdrA cha bhadrA cha maladA malahA tathA |
khaladA chaiva rAjendra naladA surasA api cha |
tathA go-chapalA tu strI-ratna-kUTAH cha tA dasha || 1-31-11
This raudrashva begot ten sons and ten daughters through the celestial maiden, an apsara called ghR^itAchi... R^icheyu being the first one, the other sons are: kR^ikaNeyu, kakSheyu, sthaNDileyu, sannateyu, dashArNeyu, jaleyu, sthaleyu dhaneyu, and vaneyu... and daughters who outshone among all the other female folks are: rudra, shUdra, bhadra, malada, malaha, khalada, surasa, and go-chapala...
One girl is missing in chitrashala version, as above:
bhadrA shUdrA ca madrA ca maladA malahA tathA /
khalA balA ca rAjendra taladA surathApi ca /
tathA gopabalA ca strI ratnakUTA ca tA dasha // HV_23.8 // -- BORI ver
Bhadrâ, Sûdrâ, Madrâ, Sâladâ, Mâladâ, Khalâ, Tchalâ, Baladâ, Surasâ, et Gotchapalâ,
qui fut la perle des... -- M.A.L
The daughters were named Rudra, Shudra, Bhadra, Shalada, Malada, Khala, Chala, Valada, Suratha and Gochapala. -- MN Dutt
Some take the word strii-ratna- kuuta as the name of tenth girl, but nIlakaNTha’s gloss is different. He says ‘kUTam’ is a ‘group’ of people, i.e., Urvashi, menaka, tilotama, rambha et al beauty group.
Those ten daughters were Bhadra, Shudra and Madra, Salada, Malada, Khalada and then Nalada and Surasa besides, in that manner Gocapala and Striratnakuta. – brahma purANa
R^iShiH jAto atri vaMshe tu tAsAM bhartA prabhAkaraH |
rudrAyAM janayAmAsa sutaM somaM yashasvinam || 1-31-12
A sage called prabhAkara, who took birth in the line of sage atri, married these ten girls and begot one called soma through lady rudra...
svar-bhAnunA hate sUrye patamAne divo mahIm |
tamo abhibhUte loke cha prabhA yena prakalpitA || 1-31-13
svasti te astu iti cha ukto vai patamAno divAkaraH |
vachanAt tasya viprarSherna papAta divo mahIm || 1-31-14
atri shreShThAni gotrANi yaH chakAra mahAtapAH |
yaj~neShu atrer dhanaM chaiva suraiH yasya pravartitam || 1-31-15
At certain time, the eclipsing planet svar-bhAbnu, aka rAhu bested the sun from solar orbit... but this sage prabhAkara stabilized the falling sun just by saying, ‘stay high and palmy...’ he further caused sunshine-like effulgence from his personal effulgence in between the fall and restitution of the sun, because whole world has become loury minus sun... this prabhAkara is the sage who enriched the atri-gotra among all lineages... owing to him gods have stipulated some monetary expiation in vedic rituals aiming at the offspring of atri...
sa tAsu janayAmAsa putrikAsu sa-nAmakAn |
dasha putrAn mahAtmA sa tapasi ugre ratAn sadA || 1-31-16
te tu gotra-karA rAjan R^iShayo veda pAragAH |
svasti-AtreyA iti khyAtAH kiM tu atriM dhana varjitAH || 1-31-17
prabhAkara begot ten sons through the ten daughters of raudrashva, who are the namesakes of their mothers, namely rudra, shUdra, bhadra, malada, malaha, khalada, surasa, and go-chapala, and one more... all of them are collectively called as ‘blest-AtreyA-s, svasti-AtreyA-s; all are vedic pundits, immersed in rigorous ascesis, embellishers of their lineage, and who technically became the sons of raudrashva, under putrika-putra nyAya.. but they have not inherited prerogatives of Atri...
AchArya madhva details about this putrika-putra nyAya in mbTn– one’s daughter’s son is his own son. In marriages if this clause is laid, the first son, or other agreed upon sons, will become the [adopted] sons of the father of the bride. Thus they inherit the riches of their maternal grandfather, but not any patrimonial property. The condition recited there is:
tubhyam kanyAm pradAsyAmi deva agni guru sannidhau |
asyAm yo jAyate putraH sa me putro bhavet iti ||
kakSheyoH tanayAH cha Asan traya eva mahArathAH |
sabhAnaraH chaAkShuShaH cha paramanyuH tathaiva cha || 1-31-18
sabhAnarasya putraH tu vidvAn kAlAnalo nR^ipaH |
kAlAnalasya dharmaj~naH sR^i~njayo nAma vai sutaH || 1-31-19
sR^i~njayasya abhavat putro vIro rAjA pura~njayaH |
janamejayo mahArAja pura~njaya suto abhavat || 1-31-20
janamejayasya rAjarSheH mahAshAlaH abhavat sutaH |
deveShu sa parij~nAtaH pratiShThita yashA bhuvi || 1-31-21
mahAmanA nAma suto mahAshAlasya dhArmikaH |
jaj~ne vIraH suragaNaiH pUjitaH su-mahA-yashAH || 1-31-22
mahAmanAstu putrau dvau janayAmAsa bhArata |
ushInaraM cha dharmaj~naM titikShuM cha mahAbalam || 1-31-23
kakSheyu’s son are three – sabhAnara, chaAkShuSha and paramanyu; from him the lineage that has won the laurels of gods and that has unmitigated renown on earth is: sabhAnara → kAla-anala → sR^i~njaya → pura~njaya → janamejaya → mahA-shAla → mahA-mana, who has two sons namely the sagacious ushI-nara and all-mighty titikShu...
ushInarasya patnyaH tu pa~ncha rAjarShi vaMsha-jAH |
nR^igA kR^imI navA darvA pa~nchamI cha dR^IShadvatI || 1-31-24
ushInarasya putrAH tu pa~ncha tAsu kulodvahAH |
tapasA vai sumahatA jAtA vR^iddhasya bhArata || 1-31-25
nR^igAyAH tu nR^igaH putraH kR^imyAM kR^imiH ajAyata |
navAyAH tu navaH putro darvAyAH suvrato abhavat || 1-31-26
dR^iShadvatyAH tu sa~njaj~ne shibiH aushInaro nR^ipaH |
ushI-nara’s wives are five, all betrothed from the houses of sagely kings, whose names are: nR^iga, kR^imi, nava, darva, and the fifth one is dR^IShadvati... his sons are also five, begotten at advanced age after a rigorous ascesis... lady nR^iga’s son is nR^iga; lady kR^imi’s son is kR^imi; lady navAya’s son is nava; lady darvAya’s son is suvrata... and through lady dR^iShadvati that king ushInara begot the prince named shibi...
shibeH tu shibayaH tAta yodheyAH tu nR^igasya ha ||
navasya nava-rAShTraM tu kR^imeH tu kR^imilA purI |
suvratasya tathA ambaShThA shibi putrAn nibodha me || 1-31-28
Out of the five sons, king shibi’s descendants are much known as shibya-s, or shaibya-s; king nR^iga’s progeny as yaudheya-s... and king nava’s capital is nava-rAShTram; king kR^imi’s capital kR^imilA-puri; king suvrata’s capital ambaShTha-puram... now, let me tell you about the progeny of king shibi...
shibeH cha putrAH chatvAro vIrAH trai-lokya-vishrutAH |
vR^iShadarbhaH suvIraH cha madrakaH kaikayaH tathA || 1-31-29
teShAM janapadAH sphItAH kekayA madrakAH tathA |
vR^iShadarbhAH suvIrAH cha titikShoH tu prajAH shR^iNu || 1-31-30
King shibi has four valiant and world famous sons named vR^iSha-darbha, suvIra, madraka, kaikaya, and their prodigious provinces too are named after them as vR^iSha-darbha, suvIra, madraka, kekaya... now, let me tell you about the progeny of king titikShu...
taitikShavaH abhavat rAjA pUrvasyAM dishi bhArata |
uShadrathaH mahAbAhuH tasya phenaH sutaH abhavat || 1-31-31
phenAt tu sutapA jaj~ne sutah sutapaso baliH |
jAto mAnuSha yonau tu sa rAjA kA~nchana iShudhIH || 1-31-32
mahA-yogI sa tu baliH babhUva nR^ipatiH purA |
putrAn utpAdayAmAsa pa~ncha vaMsha-karAn bhuvi || 1-31-33
titikShu’s son is uShad-ratha who became the ruler of eastren quarter... princes from uShad-ratha → phena → su-tapasa → bali... this king bali is none other than the great demon emperor bali occurring in the days of vAmana-avatAra of viShNu; that great demon-king who had a golden bow i.e., a golden career of conquests, and who was a great ascetic ultimately, is now transfigured into human form... this king bali begot five sons, embellishers of his dynasty...
a~NgaH prathamataH jaj~ne va~NgaH suhmaH tathaiva cha |
puNDraH kali~NgaH cha tathA bAleyaM kShatram uchyate || 1-31-34
Prince a~Nga is the first born while va~Nga, suhma, puNDra, kali~Nga are the other sons... these and their descendants are termed as bAleya-kshatriya-s...
Needless to say, the provinces known even now as a~Nga, va~Nga, puNDra, kali~Nga are named after these princes as with the provinces sauvIra, madraka, kekaya etc which shibi made over to his sons.
bAleyA brAhmaNAH chaiva tasya vaMsha-karA bhuvi |
Those being the kshatriya descendents of emperor bali, there are brAhmaNa-s also who embellished bali’s patriline...
baleH tu brahmanA dattA varAH prItena bhArata || 1-31-35
mahA-yogitvam AyuH cha kalpasya parimANataH |
sa~NgrAme va apyajeyatvaM dharmaM chaiva pradhAnatA || 1-31-36
trailokya darshanam chaiva prAdhAnyaM prasave tathA |
bale cha apratimatvaM vai dharma tattva artha darshanaM || 1-31-37
chaturo niyatAn varNAn tvaM cha sthApayitA bhuvi |
ityukto vibhunA rAjA baliH shAntiM parAm yayau || 1-31-38
O descendant of bharata, pleased with king bali, brahma conferred several boons on him, which are - the dignity of a great ascetic; a long life extending over a kalpa, an era; invincibleness in battles; leadership of a religious order; the vision of three worlds; supremacy in issuing commands; an insight into the subtleties of religion and matchlessness in strength; brahma also blessed him to become a defender of the four castes in this world, whereat bali attained the ultimate salvation through knowledge, j~nAnajam moksham... [MNDutt, recast]
tasya te tanayAH sarve kShetra-jA munipu~NgavAH |
saMbhUtA dIrgha-tapaso sudekShNAyAM mahaujasaH || 1-31-39
All the five sagely as well as highly vigorous sons of king bali are kShetra-jA-s, field-born sons, as in bIja-kshetra nyAya, seed-field-syndrome, from the wife of emperor bali, namely lady sudeShNa, through niyoga of sage dIrgha-tapasa, because king bali is Urthva-retas, in a platonic ascesis, at that time...
baliH tAn abhishichyeha pa~ncha putrAn akalmaShAn |
kR^itArthaH so.api yoga-AtmA yogam AshR^itya sa prabhuH || 1-31-40
adhR^iShyaH sarva bhUtAnAM kAla-apekShI charan api |
kAlena mahatA rAjan svaM cha sthAnam upAgamat || 1-31-41
On enthroning his five sinless sons, king bali felt self-justified. Thereupon going in to reclusion that great ascetic, irrepressible unto all, began to wait for time practising ascesis. After a long time, O king janamejaya, he has gone to his final resting-place...
teShAM janapadAH pa~ncha a~NgA va~MgAH sa suhmakAH |
kali~NgAH puNDrakAH chaiva prajAH tu a~Ngasya me shR^iNu || 1-31-42
The five provinces of the five sons of bali are: a~Nga, va~Mga, suhmaka, kali~Nga, and puNDraka... now, let me tell you about the progeny of king a~Nga...
a~Nga putro mahAn AsIt rAjendro
dadhivAhana putraH tu rAjA diviratho abhavat || 1-31-43
putro divirathasya AsIt shakra-tulyaparAkramaH |
vidvAn dharmaratho nAma tasya chitrarathaH sutaH || 1-31-44
tena chitrarathena atha tadA viShNupade girau |
yajatA saha shakreNa somaH pIto mahAtmanA || 1-31-45
This is the patriline from king anga → dadhi-vAhana → divi-ratha → dharma-ratha → chitra-ratha... this chitra-ratha performed a rigorous ascesis of Mt. viShNu-pada, as a result of which indra has become so friendly with him, after citra-ratha’s attaining godhood, that indra even participated in the drinking-bouts of soma, the divine elixir, along with him...
atha chitrarathasya api putro dasharatho abhavat |
lomapAda iti khyAto yasya shAntA sutA abhavat || 1-31-46
tasya dAsharathiH vIraH chatura~Ngo mahAyashAH |
R^ishyashR^i~Nga prasAdena jaj~ne kula-vivardhanaH || 1-31-47
catura~Ngasya putraH tu pR^ithulAkSha iti smR^itaH |
pR^ithulAkSha suto rAjA champo nAmA mahAyashAH || 1-31-48
champasya tu purI champA yA mAlini abhavat purA |
pUrNa-bhadra prasAdena harya~Ngo asya suto.abhavat || 1-31-49
tato vaibhANDakiH tasya vAraNaM shakra vAraNam |
avatArayAmAsa mahIM mantraiH vAhanam uttamam || 1-31-50
chitra-ratha's son is → dasha-ratha, aka loma-pAda, aka roma-pAda, whose daughter is shAnta, who is given to the son of sage vibhANDaka, namely sage R^ishya- shR^i~Nga; dasha-ratha’s son is → catura~Nga whose descent is at the grace of sage R^ishya- shR^i~Nga, who conducted a vedic ritual called putra-kAmeShTi on behalf of dasha-ratha to effectuate the birth of chatura~na; from chatura~Nga → pR^ithula-akSha → champa; this king champa’s capital is champA-puri, aka mAlini-puri; he begot one prince called harya~Nga at the grace of a sage called pUrNa-bhadra; the son of sage vibhANDaka, namely sage R^ishyashR^i~Nga, fetched the elephant-vehicle of indra, namely airAvata, as an elephant-vehicle for this harya~Nga, just by incantatory hymns... this king squares with indra, so to say...
harya~Ngasya tu dAyAdo rAjA bhadrarathaH smR^itaH |
putro bhadrarathasya AsIt bR^ihatkarmA prajeshvaraH || 1-31-51
bR^ihaddarbhaH sutaH tasya tasmAt jaj~ne bR^ihanmanAH |
bR^ihanmanAstu rAjendra janayAmAsa vai sutam || 1-31-52
nAmnA jayadrathaM nAma yasmAt dR^iDharatho nR^ipaH |
AsIt dR^iDharathasya api vishvajit janamejaya |
dAyAdaH tasya karNaH tu vikarNasH tasya cha AtmajaH || 1-31-53
tasya putra shataM tu AsIt a~NgAnAM kulavardhanam |
This is the patriline from harya~Nga → bR^ihat-karmA → bR^ihad-darbha → bR^ihat-manAH → jayadratha → dR^iDha-ratha → vishvajit → karNa → vikarNa who begot a hundred sons that have augmented a~Nga dynasty...
bR^ihaddarbha suto yastu rAjA nAmnA bR^ihanmanAH || 1-31-54
tasya patnI dvayaM cha AsIt chaidyaH yaite sute shubhe |
yashodevI cha satyA cha tAbhyAM vaMshaH tu bhidyate || 1-31-55
jayadrathasH tu rAjendra yashodevyAM vyajAyata |
brahma kShatra uttaraH satyAM vijayo nAma vishrutaH || 1-31-56
vijayasya dhR^itiH putraH tasya putro dhR^itavrataH |
dhR^itavratasya putraH tu satyakarmA mahAyashAH || 1-31-57
satyakarma sutaH chApi sUtaH tu adhirathaH tu vai |
yaH karNaM prati jagrAha tataH karNaH tu sUtajaH || 1-31-58
etad vaH kathitaM sarvaM karNaM prati mahAbalam |
karNasya vR^iShasenaH tu vR^iShaH tasya AtmajaH smR^itaH || 1-31-59
bR^ihat-darbha’s son is bR^ihat-mana whose two wives are the princesses from chaidya province, namely lady yasho-devi and lady satya, owing to whom there occurred a twofold divergence of that dynasty...
O king janamejaya, king jayadratha is born of lady yashodevi. And from lady satya is born the celebrated king vijaya, who by his equanimity of mind and other qualities is superior to the brAhmaNa-s and by heroism and other accomplishments, is superior to the kshatriya-s...
vijaya's son is dhR^iti whose son is dhR^ita-vrata. His son is the highly illustrious satya-karma...
The son of satya-vrata through a brAhmaNa lady is a sUta - because of the rule: brAhmaNyAm kshatriya jAtaH sUta iti abhidhIyate -
and this mighty chariot-warrior draws the suffix of ratha in his name from the very same dynasty of kshatriya-s with –ratha suffix, and he is called athi-ratha, who later adopted the son of lady kunti, namely karNa as his son. It is therefore karNa is called the son of a charioteer... the family of the highly powerful karNa has thus been described. karNa's son is vR^iSha-sena whose son is vR^iSha... [MNDutt, recast]
ete.a~Nga vaMsha jAH sarve rAjAnaH kIrtitA mayA |
satyavratA mahAtmAnaH prajAvanto mahArathAH || 1-31-60
R^icheyoH tu mahArAja raudrAshva tanayasya ha |
shR^iNu vaMsham anuproktaM yatra jAtaH asi pArthiva || 1-31-61
I have thus described to you the truthful and noble kings of a~Nga dynasty who had many sons and who were mighty chariot-warriors... O king, hear now of the dynasty of R^icheyu, the first son of rudrAshva, in which you have been born...
iti shrImahAbhArate khileShu harivaMshe harivaMshaparvaNi
kakSheyu vaMsha anukIrtanaM nAma ekatriMsho.adhyAyaH
Thus, this is the thirty-first chapter of first canto called harivamsha-parva, in harivamsha-purANa, the sequel of mahAbhArata, narrating the dynasty of king kakSheyu.
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|E&OE - content is subject to revision : dated 22-11-07|