#########

mahAbhAratam
tasya khila bhAgo

harivamsham

harivamsha parva
ch 40

varAha utpatti –janamejaya prashnAH
advent of sacred-boar – enquiry of janamejaya

 

--o)0(o--

 janamejaya uvAcha : janamejaya querried vaishampAyana:

prAdurbhAvAn purANeShu viShNor amitatejasaH |
satAM kathayatAm eva varAha iti naH shrutam || 1-40-1
na jAne tasya charitaM na vidhiM naiva vistaram |
na karma guNa santAnaM na hetuM na manIShitam || 1-40-2
kim Atmako varAhaH sa kA mUrtiH kA cha devatA |
kim AchAraH prabhAvo vA kiM vA tena purA kR^itam || 1-40-3

“O brahman, in the purANA-s the sages have described the incarnations of viShNu of unlimited energy... we have heard from them that the Lord incarnated himself as a boar. But we do not know his history fully... what accomplishments he has; what are his objectives, conduct and prowess, and what kind of god he is when he assumed this form of a boar... and what he was doing before it...

yaj~na arthaM samavetAnAM miShatAM cha dvi-janmanAm |
mahAvarAhacharitaM kR^iShNa-dvaipAyana Iritam || 1-40-4
yathA nArAyaNo brahman vArAhaM rUpamAsthitaH |
daMShTrayA gAM samudrasthAm ujjahAra ari-sUdanaH || 1-40-5
vistareNaiva karmANi sarvANi ripu-ghAtinaH |
shrotum ichChAmi asheSheNa hareH kR^iShNasya dhImataH || 1-40-6

We have heard that sage kR^iShNa-dwaipAyana described this great boar-incarnation before the twice-born ones when they assembled at a sacrifice, and detailed as to how that enemy-eradicator, viShNu, incarnating himself as a boar, saved the earth sunk in the ocean with his tusks; now I would like to hear at length the various deeds performed by the intelligent slayer of enemies hari in his incarnation of boar...

karmaNAm AnupUrvyAt cha prAdurbhAvAH cha ye vibhoH |
yA cha asya prakR^itir brahman tAM me vyAkhyAtum arhasi || 1-40-7

It will be apt of you to tell me in detail about the history of his manifestations and their nature...

kathaM cha bhagavAn viShNuH sura-shatru-niShUdanaH |
vasudeva kule dhImAn vAsudevatvam AgataH || 1-40-8

 

Why god viShNu, the slayer of enemies of gods, took birth as vAsu-deva, taking birth in family of vasu-deva...

amarair AvR^itaM puNyaM puNya kR^itbhir niShevitam |
deva lokaM sam-utsR^ijya martya lokam iha AgataH || 1-40-9
deva mAnuShayor netA yaH bhuvaH prabhavo vibhuH |
kimarthaM divyam AtmAnaM mAnuShye saM-nyayojayat || 1-40-10
yaH chakraM vartayeti eko mAnuShANAm anAmayam |
mAnuShye sa kathaM buddhiM chakre chakra-bhR^itAM-varaH || 1-40-11

You say that he will always be in the thick of immortals and pious souls, then why he stepped out of such a realm of gods and supersouls, and stepped into the mortal world... you say that he is the soul-a-priori, either of mortals or of gods – divya AtmA – and even the mortal world has emanated from him, then why he defrocked his celestial nature into a trifling mortal being... you say that he is the single unpernicious wheelsman of the universe, -anAmaya para brahma - then why did he make up his mind to wheelspin this pernicious world from within – Amaya bhUyiShTa prapancham –that too on taking a pernicious birth...

gopa ayanaM yaH kurute jagataH sArva laukikam |
sa kathaM gAM gato devo viShNur gopatvam AgataH || 1-40-12

You say that he implicitly moves the universe composed of kalA-kAShTA-muhurtA-s, seconds, minutes, hours etc time divisions aggregating to yuga-manvantara-parArthA-s, eras, grand-eras etc... Then, how did he get into this world only to circuit the ranch moving the cows from dawn to dusk...

mahA-bhUtAni bhUtAtmA yaH dadhAra chakAra cha |
shrI-garbhaH sa kathaM garbhe striyA bhUcharayA dhR^itaH || 1-40-13
yena lokAn kramair jitvA tribhis trIn tridashepsayA |
sthApitA jagato mArgAs tri-varga prabhavAH trayaH || 1-40-14

You say that he creates and bears all the five subtle and gross beings of whole universe – pancha bhUtA-s - and thus call him as shrI-garbha, the fount of all creation, rather omni-wombed, then how did he contain himself in a petty womb of a female earthling – pancha bhUtAtmaka mAtR^i garbham; he is said to have triumphed over all the upper and nether worlds, and established a triad of worlds, where heavens for celestials and earth to humankind with a threefold system...

yaH anta-kAle jagat pItvA kR^itvA toya-mayaM vapuH |
lokam ekArNavaM chakre dR^ishya adR^ishyena vartmanA || 1-40-15
yaH purANe purANa AtmA vArAhaM rUpam AsthitaH |
viShANa agreNa vasudhAm ujjahAra ari-sUdanaH || 1-40-16

He is said to be devouring entire universe at the end of era, himself becoming a sheet of primordial waters – jala swarUpa; and how that antediluvian soul - purANa-AtmA - with a nebulous manifestation - dR^ishya adR^ishya AtmA- extolled in legends upheaved the submersed earth in the very primordial waters on the points of his tusks when he donned a sacramental-boar, yaj~na-varAha mUrti, incarnation...   

yaH purA puruhUta arthe trailokyam idam avyayaH |
dadau jitvA asura gaNAn surANAM sura-sattamaH || 1-40-17

How, in the days of yore, he vanquished the demons on behalf of indra and how that foremost of gods nArAyaNa conferred the triad of worlds upon the celestials...

yena saiMhaM vapuH kR^itvA  dvidhA kR^itvA cha tat punaH |
pUrvaM daityo mahAvIryo hiraNyakashipur hataH || 1-40-18

How he assumed the form of a two-in-one personality, man-lion, and how he eliminated the prime daitya, namely the highly energetic hiraNyakashipu...

yaH purA hi analo bhUtvA aurvaH saMvartako vibhuH |
pAtAlastho arNava gataM papau toya-mayaM haviH || 1-40-19

How, in the days of yore, did he sip the subterranean lava-like oceanic oblation assuming the form of a submarine-fire, called samvartaka-agni...

sahasra shirasaM brahman sahasrAraM sahasra-dam |
sahasra charaNaM devaM yam Ahur vai yuge yuge || 1-40-20

Who in various eras will be with umpteen cogitations, umpteen watches, umpteen transits, and who bestows everything in a number of ways, whereby he is called a god...

nAbhyA araNyAM sam-utpannaM yasya paitAmahaM gR^iham |
eka arNava jalasthasya naShTe sthAvara ja~Ngame || 1-40-21

Who is he from whose naval the abode of brahma, a golden lotus with a stalk that looks like one of the two rubbing sticks to produce fire in Vedic rituals - araNi – has emerged, whereby that creator brahma himself is created with a peduncle–like substructure of Veda-s and their rites, that too, when whole of the sessile and mobile universe has metamorphosed into a single ocean of primordial waters...

yena te nihatA daityAH saMgrAme tArakAmaye |

Who is he at whose hand the demon tAraka-asura met his end...

sarva devamayaM kR^itvA sarva Ayudha dharaM vapuH || 1-40-22
garudaH tena cha utsiktaH kAlanemir nipAtitaH |
nirjitaH cha mayo daityaH tArakaH cha mahAsuraH || 1-40-23

Who is he assuming the consistorial form of all gods, wielding every weapon with every limb, while his eagle-vehicle garuDa proudly airlifted him, slew the demons called kAla-nemi... besides, who is said to have vanquished demons like maya and tAraka...

uttara ante samudrasya kSIrodasya amR^ita udadheH |
taH shete shAshvataM yogam AsthAya timiram mahat || 1-40-24

He, who obtained ambrosia from the northerly fringe, i.e., at heavenward fringe, of Milk Ocean...; who on devising a kind of haze – timiram = yoga mAya – reposes eternally on the billows of that Milk Ocean... who is he...

sura-araNiH garbham adhatta divyaM tapaH prakarShAt aditiH purANaM |
shakraM cha yaH daitya-gaNa-avaruddhaM garbha-avasAne nibhR^itaM chakAra || 1-40-25

He, whom the consummate ascetic lady aditi has begotten, and he, who on coming into being from lady aditi is said to have saved indra, who by then is beset by hosts of demons... who is he...   

padAni yaH lokamayAni kR^itvA chakAra daityAn salile shayAn tAn |
kR^itvA cha devAn tridivasya devAn chakre sura-IshaM tridasha-Adhipatye || 1-40-26

Who covered the triad of worlds in triple strides in his tri-vikrama incarnation, and duly posited indra in heaven, emperor bali in netherworld, and demons in briny deep...  

pAtrANi dakShiNA dIkShA  chamasa ulUkhalAni cha  |
gArhapatyena vidhinA anvAhAryeNa karmaNA || 1-4—27

Who devised various procedures dakShiNa, dIksha, and paraphernalia for Vedic rituals such as chamasA-s - a wooden vessels used for consuming soma juice; ulUkhala-s – wooden mortar; gArhapatya fireplace with samidhA-s – household fireplace with fuel; procedures for anvAhArya rituals that for the monthly beatification of manes;

agnim-AhavanIyaM cha vedIM chaiva kushaM sruvam |
prokShaNIyaM dhruvAM chaiva AvabhR^ithyaM tathaiva cha || 1-40-28

Who devised AhavanIya fireplaces and yaj~na-vedi-s - the sacrificial altar; made material like kusha – holy grass; sruva – a ladle, long spoon to pour oblations into fire; dhruva – a beaker-like mug; prokshaNa pAtrANi –vessels with which other vessels can be anointed; material for AvabhR^itha baths – finishing baths of rituals...

sudhA trINi cha yaH chakre havya kavya pradAn dvijAn |
havya AdAn cha surAn yaj~ne kravya AdAn tu pitr^In api || 1-40-29

He who created the three sorts of ambrosial life principle sudhA - in the triad of worlds; who made the brAhmaNa-s as the officiators to oblate havyA-s – for gods, and kavyA-s - for manes, and who simultaneously made gods and ancestors as the receivers of those offerings...

bhAga-arthe mantra-vidhinA yaH chakre yaj~na-karmaNi |
yUpAn samit sruchaM somaM pavitrAn paridhIn api || 1-40-30

He who hymn-wise segmented the Vedic rituals for proper issuance of oblations among gods; who hymnally devised yUpA-s – sacrificial posts; samit-s - fuel, wood, grass, etc employed for enkindling fire; sruchaMsruk -s – offertories; soma lata -  a creeper from which juice is crushed for drinking; pavitrA-s – strainers with straining cloths; paridhi-s – wooden frame to guard ritual fire...

yaj~niyAni cha dravyANi yaj~nAn cha sa chayanalAn |
sadasyAn yajamAnAn cha medhya AdIn cha kratu-uttamAn || 1-40-31
vibabhAja purA sarvaM pArameShThyena karmaNA |
yAga anurUpAnyaH kR^itvA lokAn anuparAkramat || 1-40-32

He who devised arenas of rituals where iSTikA-chayanam – layering of brick altar will be done according to specific measurements, to place ritual fire; and apparatus for rituals like sadasyA-s – assembly of scholars; yajamAnA-s – performers; medhyakratu upayoga pashU - sacrificed; and the like that have been classified by him on the lines laid down by pArameShThi, parama iShTi – highest vedic ritual in himself, namely brahma, for the conduct of best vedic rituals... and he who aestivated himself into a yogic trance on making all these paraphernalia and procedures likeable to people... who is he...

kShaNA lavAH cha kAShThAH cha kalAH trai-kAlyam eva cha |
muhUrtAH tithayo mAsAH pakShAH saMvatsarAH tathA || 1-40-33
R^itavaH kAla-yogAH cha pramANaM trividhaM triShu |
AyuH kShetrANi upachayo lakShaNaM rUpa-sauShThavam || 1-40-34
trayo varNAH trayo lokAH trai-vidyaM pAvakAH trayaH |
trai-kAlyaM trINi karmANi trayaH upAyAH trayo guNAH || 1-40-35

He who has systematized the time right from an instant to the unscalable time factor as kShaNA, lava, kAShTha, kala, tri-kAla, muhUrta, tithi, pakSha, mAsa, R^itu, saMvatsara; and then tenets like kAla-yoga, threefold validations, namely shruti, smR^i, shiShTAchAra-s; and the threesome functions of nitya, naimittika, kAmya karmA-s undertaking which the lifespan – Ayu, physiques – kShetrANi, development – upachaya, vR^iddhi, characteristics – lakShaNaM, physical bearing - rUpa-sauShThavam, of all the mobile and sessile beings will function; and who created the threesome social system - traya varNA-s - brahma, kshatriya, vaishya, shUdrA-s implied; triad of worlds - bhU, bhuvaH, suvaH; triplex education – Rik, yajur, atharva, sAma implied; trinity of sacred fires – dakshinAtya, AhavanIya, gArhapatya agni-s; triune of time - bhUta, bhaviShyat, vartamAna – all in one factor called the time; triple action types – gentle, aggressive, moronic actions according to sattva, rajas, tamo guNA-s; triple cravings – putraiShaNa, vittaiShaNa, lokai ShaNa -  and threesome subtle factors...

trayo lokAH purA sR^iShTA yena anantyena karmaNA |
sarva-bhUta-gaNa-sraShTA sarva bhUta-guNa-AtmakaH || 1-40-36

He who has created the triad of worlds by his incessant action; who has created all the hosts of beings, yet who is the inferential soul of all beings...

nR^iNAm indriya pUrveNa yogena ramate cha yaH |
gatA-gatAbhyAM yaH netA sarvatra jagat-IshvaraH || 1-40-37

He is anywise said to be the lord of universe, because he is  involved in those that are involved the cycle of birth and death, and mankind in particular, because he takes delight in mankind alone, because he is experienceable only to mankind through their sense faculties... who is he...

yaH gatiH dharma-yuktAnAm agatiH pApa karmaNAm |
chAtur-varNyasya prabhavaH chAtur-hotrasya rakShitA || 1-40-38
chAtur-vidyasya yaH vettA chAtur-Ashramya-saMshrayaH |

He, who is the refuge of the pious and who is the punisher of the wicked... who is the causer of four-grade system of society, and a preserver of fourfold officiators of vedic rituals - hotR, adhvaryu, udgAta, and brahma.... who is the master of the fourfold knowledge – anvIkashaki, trayI, vArtA, daNDanIti; an upholder of the fourfold system of living – brahma-charya, gRahasta, vaanaprastha, sannyaasa...

dik-antarAH nabho-bhUtaH vAyuH ApaH vibhAvasuH  || 1-40-39
chandra sUrya-maya jyotiH yogi-IshaH kShaNada-antakaH  |

He, whose quiddity is manifest in the sky inclusive of directions and inter-directions, air, water, fire, or earth, because earth is also vi+bhA+vasu – i.e. – visheSheNa bhAti= vibhA, jyotiH; vasumati - pRithvI; and the light with which sun and moon are aglow-  chandra sUrya prathAnam jyotiH; or mano-jyothi, chakshur jyothi -  illuminist of the eye, or heart, because he is the destroyer of kShaNada = night, say darkness, that too without a ripple in his attitude - yogi-Isha = nirvikalpa... who is this yogIsha...

 

yat paraM shrUyate jyotir yat paraM shrUyate tapaH || 1-40-40
1yaM paraM prAhur aparaM yaH paraH parama-AtmavAn |
nArAyaNa parA-vedA nArAyaNa parAH-kriyAH || 1-40-41
nArAyaNa paro-dharmo nArAyaNa parA-gatiH |
nArAyaNa paraM-satyaM nArAyaNa paraM-tapaH || 1-40-42
nArAyaNa paro mokSho nArAyaNa para-ayaNam |

He is identical with the most excellent lustre and tapas of which we hear. The sages designate him as the thread that connects all the souls; and the whole universe is his form. The Vedas and all the works exist in Narayana. Narayana is the greatest virtue and is the most most excellent condition. Truth exists in Narayana and Tapas exists in him. Salvation exists in Narayana and Narayana is the most excellent refuge... [m.n.d]

These foots are constructed on the lines of Vedic hymn nArAyaNa parodhyAtA dhyAnam nArAyaNa paraH...

AdityAdiH tu yaH divyaH yaH cha daitya-antako vibhuH || 1-40-43

He who is the lord of all the skywalkers, i.e., gods – divyaH – divi-charaH – like Aditya-s and others, and he is the slayer of demons...

yuga anteShu antako  yaH cha yaH cha loka-antakAn antakaH |
setuH yaH loka setUnAM medhyo yaH medhya karmaNAm || 1-40-44
vedyo yo veda-viduShAM prabhur yaH prabhava-AtmanAm |
soma-bhUtaH tu saumyAnAm agni-bhUto agni-varcasAm || 1-40-45
manuShyANAM mano-bhUtaH tapo-bhUtaH tapasvinAm |
vinayo naya-vR^ittInAM tejaH tejasvinAm api |
sargANAM sarga-kAraH cha loka-hetuH anuttamaH || 1-40-46
vigraho vigraha-arhANAM gatiH gatimatAm api |

He ends everything at the end of eras; death to the deadener of living-beings, say yama, the Timegod; begetter of begetters like kashyapa and other prajApati-s who have instituted various orders of living beings; deducible upon one’s own liturgical actions – nitya, naimittika karma; a knowable entity for vedic-scholars; an exalted one for the exalted souls like sages marIchi, kashyapa et al; charming like soma, the moon, for the gentle; an incinerator for the inflamers; heartiness  of the humans; ascesis for the ascetics; conscientious for the scrupulous; refulgent for the fulgent; begetter of all begotten; a nonesuch principle of all the worlds; an opposer of the opposable; a tack for righteous tackers...

AkAsha-prabhavo vAyuH vAyu-prANo hutAshanaH || 1-40-47
devA hutAshana prANAH prANO agneH madhusUdanaH |

It is said that air has emerged from space; and prANa, the vital-spirit, from that air; and the devourer of oblations, more specifically the firegod, has come from that vital-spirit; and this firegod, devourer of oblations, is the life-spirit of gods, whereas madhu-sUdana is the life-spirit of that firegod, huta-ashana...

rasAt vai shoNitaM jAtaM shoNitAt mAMsam uchyate || 1-40-48
mAMsAt tu medaso janma medaso asthIni chaiva hi |
asthno majjA samabhavat majjAtaH shukram eva cha || 1-40-49
shukRAt garbhaH samabhavat rasa-mUlena karmaNA |

The distillate of various foods, rasa, vital-juice, produces blood, and flesh is produced from that blood; fat comes from flesh and bones from that fat; bones generate marrow and marrow generates seminal fluid, from which pregnancy occurs; hence, rasa, vital-fluid is substratum of all...

tatra apAM prathamo bhAgaH sa saumyo rAshiH uchyate || 1-40-50
garbha uShma saMbhavo agniH yo dvitIyo rAshiH uchyate |
shukraM soma-AtmakaM vidyAt ArtavaM viddhi pAvakam |
bhAgau rasAtmakau hi eShAM vIryaM cha shashi-pAvakau || 1-40-51

Water is the primary principle of that rasa, vital-fluid, and this belongs to the soma, the moon, or, the nectarean principle of the moon, in the somatology – Greek - soma -atos ‘body’ and its formation... heat resides in the second half, say in menstrual blood... hence, the being of living beings is a compound of coolness and heatedness of the moon and fire - shashi-pAvakAtmakam...

Here the text is dwelling on panchA agni vidya.

kapha varge bhavet shukraM pitta varge cha shoNitam |
kaphasya hR^idayaM sthAnaM  nAbhyAM pittaM pratiShThitam || 1-40-52
dehasya madhye hR^idayaM sthAnaM tat manasaH smR^itam |
nAbhi-koShTha-antaraM yat tu tatra devo hutAshanaH || 1-4-53
manaH prajApatir j~neyaH kaphaH somo vibhAvyate |
pittam agniH smR^itaM hi etat agnIShomAtmakam jagat || 1-40-54

Thus the essence of all juice, the seminal fluid, is created by an excess of phlegm; blood is created by an excess billious matter. The seat of phlegm is the heart and the seat of bile is the navel. The heart, which is in the body, is known as the seat of the mind. The fire exists behind the cavity of the navel – jaThara agni – is none other than huta-ashana, the devourer of oblations, whose life-spirit is madhu-sUdana. Mind is known as prajApati, the phlegm as soma and the bile as agni. Thus the whole world is a commixture of heat and cold...

evaM pravartate garbhe vardhite ambuda-sannibhe |
vAyuH praveshaM saMchakre saMgataH paramAtmanA || 1-40-55
tato.a~NgAni visR^ijati bibharti parivardhayan |
sa pa~nchadhA sharIrastho bhidyate vardhate punaH || 1-40-56
prANo.apAnaH samAnashcha udAno vyAna eva cha |

Where a conception takes place, as is the formation of a cloud, the air enters there accompanied by the Absolute... It then creates the various limbs and nourishes them. Inside the body the vital air divides itself into five kinds of airs, namely prANa, apAna, samAna, samAna and vyAna, and gradually assumes proportions...

prANaH sa prathamaM sthAnaM vardhayan parivartate || 1-40-57
apAnaH pashchimaM kAyam udAna UrdhvaM sharIriNaH |
vyAno vyAyachCHate yena samAnaH sannivartayet |
bhUta avAptiH tataH tasya jAyate indriya gocharAt || 1-40-58
pR^ithivI vAyurAkAshamApo jyotishcha pa~nchamam |
tasyendriyANi viShTAnisvaM svaM yogaM prachakrire || 1-40-59

prANa-air abiding in the area of heart makes the foods and drinks enter the stomach, thus helps nourishment of the body; apAna-air abiding in sacral area facilitates excretion of mala, mUtra, retas; samAna-air residing in abdominal region facilitates digestion-balance; samAna-air abiding in the area of throat facilitates speech function; vyAna-air pervades whole inner space facilitates sweat, tears etc; thus the five vital airs enter the physique made up of five subtle elements – solidity, liquidity, resplendence, gaseousness, voidness,  and blent with senses will undertake their functions...

pArthivaM deham AhuH taM prANa-AtmAnaM cha mArutam |
ChidrANi AkAsha yonIni jalAt srAvaH pravartate || 1-40-60
jyotiH chakShuH cha teja-AtmA teShAM yantA manaH smR^itaH |
grAmAH cha viShayAH chaiva yasya vIryAt pravartitAH || 1-40-61

Such as it is the body is a corporeity, vital-forces are air; apertures etheric; water causing effluxes; eye-light is the refulgence of Soul-supreme, and the taskmaster of these ingredients is said to be – manas, the volitive mind... with this paraphernalia the body is enjoying carnality...

iti evaM puruShaH sarvAn sR^ijat LokAn sanAtanAn |
kathaM loke naidhane asmin naratvaM viShNuH AgataH || 1-40-62

In this way that Supreme Person said to have created the world in primeval times... then, who is he... then again, how that imperishable viShNu has come by manhood in this perishable world...

eSha me saMshayo brahman evaM me vismayo mahAn |
kathaM gatiH gatimatAm Apanno mAnuShIM tanum || 1-40-63
shruto me svasva vaMshasya pUrveShAM chaiva saMbhavaH |
shrotum ichChAmi viShNoH tu vR^iShNInAM cha yathA-kramam || 1-40-64
AshcharyaM paramaM viShNur devair daityaiH cha kathyate |
viShNor utpattim AshcharyaM mama AchakShva mahAmune || 1-40-65
etat Ashcharyam AkhyAnaM kathayasva sukhAvaham |
prakhyAta bala vIryasya viShNor amitatejasaH |
karma cha Ashcharya-bhUtasya viShNoH tattvam iha uhyatAm || 1-40-66

This is not only my doubt but it is a great surprise to me... how he took on himself a human form when he himself is the ultimate recourse to the seekers of salvation... I have heard an account of my own family as well as of those of my ancestors. I wish now to hear in due order of the families of viShNu and vRiShNi-s...

The gods and demons say that Vishnu is a great wonder. Please describe to me, oh, great sage, the wondrous advent of Vishnu as a human... Describe to me truly the wonderful and delightful account of the highly energetic Vishnu of well-known deeds and prowess who surprised the whole world by his actions...

--o)0(o--

iti shrImanmahAbhArate khileShu harivaMshe harivaMshaparvaNi varAhotpattivarNane chatvAriMsho.adhyAyaH   

Thus, this is the fortieth chapter of first canto called harivamsha-parva, in harivamsha-purANa, the sequel of mahAbhArata, narrating the enquiry of janamejaya in the context of boar incarnation of Vishnu.

--o)0(o--

Prev ch 39 : legend of akrUra & syamantaka-jewel contents Next chapter 41:  incarnations of hari  
verse-transliteration:  ks ramachandran
< ramachandran_ksr @ yahoo.ca >
verse-rendition advisor : gilles schaufelberger
 < schaufel @ wanadoo.fr >
page maintained by : Harindranath Avaroth :
<  harindranath_a @ yahoo.com >
translation : desiraju hanumanta rao
< desirajuhrao @ yahoo.com
>
E&OE - content is subject to revision : dated 17-2-08