mahAbhAratam
tasya khila bhAho

harivamsham

harivamsha parva
ch 9

 vaivasvata utpatti
Emergence of vaivasvata-manu

 

--o)0(o--

vaishampAyana uvAca:

vivasvAn kashyapAt jaj~ne dAkShAyaNyAm arindama |
tasya bhArya abhavat saMj~nA tvAShTrI devI vivasvataH || 1-9-1

vivasvAn, namely the Sun, emerged from lady aditi and kashyapa prajApati, where lady aditi is the daughter of daksha, hence called dAkshAyiNi...  And the wife of vivasAn, namely Sungod, is lady saMj~na, the daughter of tvASTR^i prajApati ...

sureNuH iti vikhyAtA triShu lokeShu bhAminI |
sA vai bhAryA bhagavato mArtaNDasya mahAtmanaH || 1-9-2
bhartR^i rUpeNa na tuShyat rUpa-yauvana-shAlinI |
saMj~nA strI su-tapasA dIptena iha samanvitA || 1-9-3

She who is endowed with beauty, youth, chastity, self-refulgence, and who is also renowned as lady sureNu in all the three worlds, that lady saMj~na, though became the wife of that highsouled mArtANDa, namely sUrya, felt highly uncomfortable for the proximity of her husband sUrya, because of his scorching mien and glaring light...

bhAminI= kopanA; bhAvinI iti pAThe= shuddha chitti iti.

Adityasya hi tat rUpaM maNDalasya sutejasA |
gAtreShu pari-dagdhaM vai na atikAntam iva abhavat || 1-9-4

Though Aditya's burning form and radiation of his solar sphere made saMj~na's limbs to scorch, reducing her bodily lustre to nothing. Thus, she remained alive owing to her own dedication to her husband...

na khalu ayaM mR^ito aNDastha iti snehAt abhAShata |
aj~nAnAt kashyapaH tasmAt mArtaNDa iti ca ucyate || 1-9-5

When lady aditi was carrying mArtANDa, then budha, the Jupiter, came to her for alms, for which she did not react immediately. So, budha cursed her to beget a dead foetus from the pregnancy she is carrying, for which curse aditi became bewildered and wailed ignorantly before her husband daksha saying, "mama aNDam mR^itam mama aNDam mR^itam" - "foetus in my womb is dead foetus in my womb is dead " But, her husband daksha prajApati consoled her saying, "the foetus in your womb is not dead life is there in the foetus you need not worry." Because she wailed repeatedly saying as above, her offspring became -  mR^ita aNDa janita iti mArtANDa - one who emerged from a dead-foetus whence forward the Sun is also called as mArtANDa...

This episode of budha's cursing aditi, narrated in this chapter, is also available in mahAbhArata, narrated in SECTION CCCXLIII of KM Gangulis's translation.

tejaH tu abhyadhikaM tAta nityam eva vivasvataH |
yena ati tApayAmAsa trIn lokAn kashyapa-AtmajaH || 1-9-6

Owing to the ascetic power of kashyapa prajApati, his son, namely the Sun, or mArtANDa, has become highly parching, whereby he sears all the three worlds...

trINi apatyAni kauravya saMj~nAyAM tapatAM varaH |
Adityo janayAmAsa kanyAM dvau ca prajApatI || 1-9-7

Lady saMj~na, somehow tolerating the radiation of that supreme scorcher, namely Aditya, the Sun, gave rise to three of his children, one girl and two prajApati-s...

anuH vaivasvataH pUrvaM shrAddha-devaH prajApatiH |
yamAt ca yamunA caiva yamajau sambabhUvatuH || 1-9-8

Out of those two prajApati-s one is vaivasvata prajApati, because he is the son of vivasvAn, namely the Sun himself while the other is shrAddha-deva, presiding deity of obsequial oblations, namely yama, or also called shamana, the eternal silencer and the girl is a twin sister of yama, named as lady yamuna...

sA vivarNaM tu tat rUpaM dR^iTvA saMj~nA vivasvataH |
a-sahantI ca svAM ChAyAM sa-varNAM nirmame tataH ||1-9-9

Unable to further tolerate the irradiative aspect of Sun, which can be endured only through a hardship, then saMj~na created a form from out of her own shade, calling her lady cChAya...

mAyA-mayI tu sA saMj~nA tasyAH cChAyA samutthitA |
prA~njaliH praNatA bhUtvA ChAyA saMj~nAM nareshvara || 1-9-10

And oh, king, that lady cChAya, a completely artificial entity, emerged from out of the shade of lady saMj~na, stood before lady saMj~na with folded palms...

ChAya uvAca:

uvAca kiM mayA kAryaM kathayasva shucismite |
sthitAsmi tava nirdeshe shAdhi mAM varavarNini || 1-9-11

"Oh, lady with beautiful smile, tell me what I have to do...oh, lady with best complexion, here I am in your service...order me..." So said lady cChAya to saMj~na...

saMj~na uvAca: saMj~na said to lady cChAya

ahaM yAsyAmi bhadraM te svam eva bhavanaM pituH |
tvaya iha bhavane mahyaM vastavyaM nirvikArayA || 1-9-12
imau ca bAlakau mahyaM kanyA ca iyaM su-madhyamA |
sambhAvyAH te na ca Akhyeyam idaM bhagavate kvacit || 1-9- 13

Then saMj~na replied her saying, "I am  going away to my father's house...in my place, you shall stay here, without becoming a rara avis -  nir-vi-kArayA - these two are my sons, and this slender-waisted girl is my daughter, whom you have take under your care like me...and I believe, you won't reveal this arrangement to lord Sun, at anytime...

ChAya uvAca: lady cChAya said to saMj~na:

A-kacagrahaNAt devi A-shApAt na eva karhicit |
AkhyAsyAmi mataM tubhyaM gacCha devi yathA sukham || 1-9-14

"I will never, never reveal this arrangement, except in the case of someone catching me by my knead-hair, or someone hurling a curse at me...as such, oh. lady, you may go as you please and feel comfortable..." So said lady cChAya to lady saMj~na.

vaishampAyana uvAca: vaishampAyana continued:

samAdishya savarNAM tAM tathA iti uktA ca sA tayA |
tvaShTuH samIpam agamat vrIDita iva tapasvinI || 1-9-15

Instructing lady cChAya about dos and don'ts of household affairs, lady saMj~na reached her father's house, namely the house of tvaShTa, with a diffidence to leave her own house...

pituH samIpagA sA tu pitrA nirbhartsitA tadA |
bhartuH samIpaM gacCha iti niyuktA ca punaH punaH || 1-9-16

And when she arrived in the presence of her father, namely tvaShTa, or vishva-karma, he spewed ire on her and demanded repeatedly that she should at once go to her husband...

agacChat vaDavA bhUtvA AcChaadya rUpam a-ninditA |
kurUn atha uttarAn gatvA tR^iNAni eva cacAra ha || 1-9-17

And that unblemished lady saMj~na came out of her father's house also. Then, on donning a mare's form, ion which form she is called vaDava, or baDaba, she roamed in the places of Northern kuru kingdom, surviving on grass-blades...

dvitIyAyAM tu saMj~nAyAM saMj~na ayam iti cintayan |
Adityo janayAmAsa putram Atma samaM tadA || 1-9-18

Believing the replica of saMj~na as saMj~na herself, the Sun lived with her, begetting two selfsame sons through her...

pUrvajasya manoH tAta sadR^ishaH ayam iti prabhuH |
savarNatvAt manoH bhUyaH sArvarNa iti ca uktavAn || 1-9-19
manuH eva abhavat nAmnA sAvarNa iti ca ucyate |
dvitIyo yaH sutaH tasyAH sa vij~neyaH shanaishcaraH || 1-9-20

"This boy is just like his elder brother vaivasvata prajApati...because of his resemblance with his elder brother let this boy be named as sAvarNi..." So said lord Surya, the Sun, when naming his first son begotten through lady cChAya...and thus that boy came to be known as sAvarNi by his name, another manu, i.e., sAvarNi manu...And the second son of Sun through lady cChAya is shanaiH-cara, or shani...

shanaiH- cara means slow-mover, Saturn, where Saturn is identified with slowness and gloom by astrologers.

saMj~nA tu pArthivI tAta svasya putrasya vai tadA |
cakAra abhyadhikaM snehaM na tathA pUrva-jeShu vai || 1-9-21

Lady cChAya, the double of saMj~na, showed more affinity with her own children, and despised the elder children of her co-wife, with a sublunary complex...

manuH tasya kShamat tu yamaH tasyA na ca kShame |
tAM sa roShAt ca bAlyAt ca bhAvino.arthasya vai balAt |

Out of the two sons of real saMj~na, the elder one, namely vaivasvata, is able to tolerate the attitude of his stepmother cChAya, but the second one, namely shamana, or yama, did not tolerate her partial attitude owing to his exasperation, childhood, and her predominance...

yadA saMtarjayAmAsa saMj~nAM vaivasvato yamaH || 1-9-22
taM shashApa tataH krodhAt sAvarNaM jananI nR^ipa |
caraNaH patatAm eva tava iti bhR^isha-duHkhitA || 1-9-23
yamastu tat pituH sarvaM prA~njaliH parya-vedayat |
bhR^ishaM shApa-bhaya-dvignaH saMj~nA vAkya-pratoditaH || 1-9-24

And when he used to threaten her repeatedly, showing his foot at her as if to punt her...then, oh, king, lady cChAya coming into a fit of fury cursed yama saying. "let your foot break loose and fall down on earth..." yama is much perturbed by this curse, came to his father, namely the Sun, and reverently reported what all has happened as he is much alarmed by her words of curse.

pratoditaH= vyathita = much alarmed. yama threatens her repeatedly showing his foot as if to kick her out, hence the curse 'breakage and fall of his foot'.

yama uvAca: yama said to his father, the Sun:

shApaH ayaM vi-ni-varteta provAca pitaraM tadA |
mAtrA snehena sarveShu vartitavyaM suteShu vai || 1-9-25
sA iyam asmAn apAhAya yavIyAMsaM bubhUShati |
tasyAM mayA udyataH pAdau na tu dehe nipAtitaH || 1-9-26
bAlyAt vA yadi vA mohAt tat bhavAn kShantum arhati |
yasmAt te pUjanIya ahaM la~NghitAsmi tvayA suta || 1-9-27
tasmAt tu eSha caraNaH patiShyati na saMshayaH |
apatyaM dur-apatyaM syAt na ambA ku-jananI bhavet || 1-9-28
shaptaH aham asmi lokesha jananyA tapatAM vara |
tava prasAdAt caraNo na patet mama go-pate || 1-9-29

Knowing the curse as an irreversible one, yama spoke to his father Sun in this way, "a mother has to acquit herself equally among all sons...such as she is, she is discarding us and caring more for her sons...I confess that I raised my foot against her, but did not kick her at all...maybe I have done it childishly or foolishly...for that it will be apt of you to excuse me...I am your son, yet my feet are going to fall off undoubtedly...there may be a good son or a bad son, but there cannot be a bad mother...oh, lord, I have been cursed and about to loose my feet...oh, lord of living creatures, show grace on me and avert the situation..."

vivasvAn uvAca- the Sun spoke in this way:

a-saMshayaM putra mahat bhaviShyati atra kAraNam |
yena tvAm Avishat krodho dharma-j~naM satya-vAdinam || 1-9-30

"Undoubtedly there should be great reason, my dear son, that has incited fury in a virtuous and veracious entity like you...

na shakyam anyathA kartuM mayA mAtuH vacaH tava |
kR^imayaH mAMsam AdAya yAsyanti dharaNI-talam || 1-9-31
tava pAdAt mahAprAj~na tataH tvaM prApsyase sukham |
kR^itam evaM vacaH tathyaM mAtuH tava bhaviShyati || 1-9-32
shApasya parihAreNa tvaM ca trAtaH bhaviShyasi |

As I cannot reverse your mother's words, let worms take pieces of flesh from your feet to earth, whereby your mother's words will come true, and you too can comfortably move on your feet as usual...further, you will be saved from the effect of curse also.." So said Sungod to his son, yama.

tulyeShu abhi-adhikaH snehaH kriyate ati punaH punaH |
sA tat pariharantI tu na AcacakShe vivasvate || 1-9-34

Then, though Aditya, the Sungod, asked lady cChAya repeatedly, saying, "when all the children are to be treated equally, why do you show extra favour towards some only..." But she did not bother to reply him, every time she used to change the orientation of that topic with a derisive smile...

prai-hasantI - is another reading, which if taken means as above. If pari-harantI is taken, then she used to harmonize the situation.

AtmAnaM su-samAdhAya yogAt tathyam a-pashyata |
tAM shaptu-kAmaH bhagavAn nAshAya kurunandana || 1-9-35
mUrdha-jeShu ca jagrAha samaye ati gate api ca |

Though he controlled himself for a long time, and much time has lapsed between his questioning and her derisive smiles, he did not find way out, or what has actually happened between mother and children is unknown to him. This roused a fit of anger in Sungod on certain occassion, and he caught hold of her hair-bun in order to curse her to elimination...

sA tat sarvaM yathA vR^ittam AcacakShe vivasvate || 1-9-36
vivasvAn atha tat shrutvA kruddhaH tvaShTAram abhyagAt |
tvaShTA tu taM yathA nyAyam arcayitvA vibhAvasum |
nir-dagdhu-kAmaM roSheNa sAntvayAmAsa vai tadA || 1-9-37

When her hair is caught, cChAya had to reveal the secret pact between her and saMj~na, and she revealed everything as has happened. Sungod is further infuriated to listen all that and immediately came to tvaShTa, or vishva-karma, the father of saMj~na, in search of his wife, namely real saMj~na. On seeing him, tvaShTa revered his son-in-law Sungod according to custom, and pacified him who is hell-bent on burning everything down, as his wife is not in his proximity.

tvaShTa uvAca : tvaShTa said

tava ati-tejasa-AviShTam idaM rUpaM na shobhate |
a-sahantI ca tat saMj~nA vane carati shAD.hvale || 1-9-38
draShTA hi tAM bhavAn adya svAM bhAryAM shubha-cAriNIm |
nityaM tapasya-abhiratAM baDavA rUpa dhAriNIm || 1-9-39

"Your form possessed with too much of radiance is not that pleasant...unable to tolerate such a form of yours, saMj~na is wandering on lawns...you can see your dear wife today itself, who is highly virtuous, always in an ascetic's mood, and who is wandering in the form of a mare...

parNa-AhArAM kR^ishAM dInAM jaTilAM brahma-cAriNIm |
hasti-hasta-pari-kliShTAM vyAkulAM padminIm iva |
shlAghyAM yoga-bala-upetAM yogam AsthAya go-pate || 1-9-40

That celibate lady is withered, pitiable, and wilted like a lotus-lake splurged by an elephant's trunk, and yet, oh, lord of rays, Sungod, subsisting on grassblades, she that praiseworthy lady is living on by means of her yogic power...

go-pati= lord of rays, as well as lord of creatures; go applies to both.

anukUlaM tu devesha yadi syAt mama tat matam |
rUpaM nirvartayAmi adya tava kAntam arindama || 1-9-41

If my advise of toning down your radiant form is acceptable to you, she obliges you, and I can finetune your radiance now itself to make it tolerably pleasant..." So said tvaSTha to Sungod.

  rUpaM vivasvataH cha AsIt tiryak Urdhva samaM tu vai |
tena asau sambhR^ito devarUpeNa tu vibhAvasuH || 1-9-42

Presently the form of Sungod is uniform, lengthwise and breadthwise, by which flatness he is termed as vibhAvasu...

tasmAt tvaShTuH sa vai vAkyaM bahu mene prajApatiH |
sam-anuj~nAtavAn chaiva tvaShTAraM rUpa-siddhaye || 1-9-43

Because of that flatness, vivasvAn prajApati, namely Sungod, much appreciated the suggestion of tvaSTha, and permitted him to reshape his form, in order to get a pleasant form...

tataH abhyupagamAt tvaShTA mArtaNDasya vivasvataH |
bhramim Aropya tat tejaH shAtayAmAsa bhArata || 1-9-44

Then tvaSTha neared Sungod, placed him on a grindstone, and started to grind the radiance.

bhrami = one that revolves; bhramaNa yantram; grindstone, lathe.

tato nir-bhAsitaM rUpaM tejasA saMhR^itena vai |
kAntAt kAnta-taraM draShTum adhikaM shushubhe tadA || 1-9-45

Then, on dulling the form and reducing the radiance, the Sungod's form became brightest from just bright, and it has become a pleasure to have a look at it...

mukhe nivartitaM rUpaM tasya devasya go-pateH |
tataH prabhR^iti devasya mukham AsIt tu lohitam |
mukha-rAgaM tu yat pUrvaM mArtaNDasya mukha cyutam || 1-9- 46

When the mien of that lord of rays is thus refined, from then on it assumed a hue of ochry-red, aruNa rAga, and while refining him on the lathe, there arose the following entities from the offscrourings of his face...

AdityA dvA-dasha eve ha sambhUtA mukha-sambhavAH |
dhAta aryamA ca mitraH ca varuNo amsho bhagaH tathA || 1-9-47
indro vivasvAn pUShA ca parjanyo dashamaH tathA |
tataH tvaShTA tato viShNuH a-jaghanyo jaghanya-jaH || 1-9-48

These are the twelve AdityA-s emerged from the face of Sungod while it is being abraded...they are: dhAta, aryamaa, mitra, varuNa, amsha, bhaga, indra, vivasvAn, pUSha; and the tenth one is parjanya; then tvaShTa has emerged, and then, last but not the least, viShNu has also emerged...

harShaM lebhe tato devo dR^iShTvA AdityAn sva-deha-jAn |
gandhaiH puShpairH ala~NkAraiH bhAsvatA-mukuTena ca || 1-9-49

And the Sungod felt highly rejoiced to see the twelve Aditya-s emerging from out of his own body who are bedecked with fragrances, flowers and highly glittering crowns...

evaM sam-pUjayAmAsa tvaShTA vAkyam uvAca ha |

tvaSTha too is rejoiced and worshipped those twelve Aditya-s in his turn, and then spoke to Sungod in this way...

gacCha deva nijAM bhAryAM kurUM carati sa uttarAn || 1-9-50
baDavA rUpam AsthAya vane carati shAdvale |

"Oh, Sungod, now you may proceed to meet your wife who taking the form of a mare is wandering in the provinces of northern kuru..." So said tvaSTha to Sungod.

sa tathA rUpam AsthAya sva-bhAryA-rUpa-lIlayA || 1-9-51
dadarsha yogam AsthAya svAM bhAryAM baDavAM tataH |
a-dhR^iShyAM sarva bhUtAnAM tejasA niyamena ca || 1-9-52
baDavA vapuShA rAjan carantIm a-kuto-bhayAm |

Assuming the form of a horse Sungod could find his wife by the dint of his yogic power, and they moved together without being assailed by all beings, and in a self-controlled manner. Because saMj~na is moving in the form of a mare, what for she should fear in the least!!!

saH ashva-rUpeNa bhagavAn tAM mukhe samabhAvayat || 1-9-53
maithunAya viceShTantI para-puMsa-upa-sha~NkayA |
sA tat niravamat shukraM nAsikAbhyAM vivasvataH || 1-9-54

Sungod in the form of a horse neared saMj~na from font end for foreplay, but her resistant behaviour to participate in mating, with a little doubt that he is not her male, made the seed of Sungod fall on her nostrils, which she snuffled off.

devau tasyAm ajAyetAm ashvinau bhiShajAM varau |
na-asatyaH caiva dasraH ca smR^itau dvAu ashvinau iti || 1-9-55

From that seed of Sungod, which baDaba alias saMj~na sneezed off from her nose, there arose two gods, namely ashvini-kumara-s. These are the twin gods who are the best among physicians. One is called na-asatya, and the other dasra...

Because they are begotten by an ashvini, female ashwa, a mare, they are ashwini-kumArA-s.

mArtaNDasya Atmajau etu aShTamasya prajApateH |
saMj~nAyAM janayAmAsa baDavAyAM sa bhArata |
tAM tu rUpeNa kAntena darshayAmAsa bhAskaraH || 1-9-56
sA cha dR^iShTva iva bhartAraM tutoSha janamejaya |

Thus, oh, janamejaya, these twins are the children of eight prajApati, namely mArtaNDa, the Sungod, as he begot them through saMj~na, alias baDava...and bhAskara beheld them by virtue of selfsame form and radiance in them...and finding her husband again at her side, lady saMj~na is also rejoiced...

yamaH tu karmaNA tena bhR^ishaM pIDita-mAnasaH || 1-9-57
dharmeNa ra~njayAmAsa dharmarAja iva prajAH |
sa lebhe karmaNA tena parameNa mahAdyutiH || 1-9-58
pitR^INAm AdhipatyaM ca loka-pAlatvam eva ca |

But yama is highly discomposed for his own act of showing foot to his stepmother, whereby she had to curse him...yet he is given the authority on manes, and the rulership of mortals, which he took upon himself and discharged his duties very efficiently...because he rightly administers rightness, he is called dharma-rAja...

manuH prajApatiH tu AsIt sAvarNaH sa tapodhanaH || 1-9-59
bhAvyaH saH anAgate kAle manuH sAvarNike antare |
meru-pR^iShThe tapo ghoram adya api carati prabhuH || 1-9-60

Next, his brother sAvarNi will become manu prajApati in the forthcoming time cycle called sAvaNi-manvantaram, and even today he is undertaking a rigorous ascesis on Mt. meru...

bhrAtA shanaiH-caraH cha asya  grahatvam upalabdhavAn |
nAsatyau yau samAkhyAtau svar vaidyau tau babhUvatuH | || 1-9-61
sevato api tathA rAjan ashvAnAM shAMti do.abhavat |

His brother shanaiH-cara has become a planet, Saturn...and the twins nAsatya and drasa have become physicians of gods...and even if they are the physicians of gods in remote heaven, they accord health and peace to anyone who venerates them...

tvaShTA tu tejasA tena viShNoH cakram akalpayat || 1-9-62
tada pratihataM yuddhe dAnava anta cikIrShayA |

With the granules erupted while toning down the radiance of Sungod on a lathe, tvaSTha, alias vishva-karma, prepared a disc, called viShNu-cakram, and gave it to shriihari, with an intention that his disc would eradicate all demons in battles...

yavIyasI tayoH yA tu yamI kanyA yashasvinI || 1-9-63
abhavat sA sarit shreShThA yamunA loka-bhAvinI |

The youngest of all the children of Sungod is a glorious damsel named yami, and she became River yamuna, a jewel among rivers, and the sanctifier of one and all...

manuH iti ucyate loke sAvarNa iti ca ucyate || 1-9-64

He who will be called as manu prajApati in this world, he will also be called sAvarNi...

dvitIyo yaH sutaH tasya manoH bhrAtA shanaiH-caraH |
grahatvaM sa ca lebhe vai sarva-loka-abhipUjitam || 1-9-65

And another son of Sungod, the brother of manu, is shaniH-cara, who got planethood and worshipped by one and all...

yaH idaM janma devAnAM shR^iNuyAt vApi dhArayet |
Apat bhyaH sa vimucyeta prApnuyAt ca mahat-yashaH || 1-9-66

He who listens or memorises this episode narrating the emergence of these gods, his fear in calamity will e removed and he achieves great renown.

--o)0(o--

iti shrImahAabhArate khilabhAge harivaMshe harivaMshaparvaNi
vaivasvatotpattau navamo.adhyAyaH || 9

Thus, this is the ninth chapter of first canto called harivamsha-parva, in harivamsha-purANa, the sequel of mahAbhArata, narrating the emergence of vaivasvata-manu, the son of Sungod .

--o)0(o--

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E&OE - content is subject to revision : dated 11-5-07