shriihari incarnates himself as krishna, the son of devaki and vasudeva, along with his elder brother balaraama, and after whose advent yama, vaayu, indra and the asvini twins take transfiguration as five paaNDava-s. In this chapter, krishna's adventures and the details about the births of paaNDava-s are incorporated.
babhUva gandharva muniH tu devakaH sa Asa seva artham atha aahukAt dhareH |
sa ugrasena avarajaH tathaiva nAmaa asya tasmAt ajani sma devakI || 12.1||
Once there was a gandharva-sage whose name is devaka. He took birth on earth only become a servitor to mahaa viShNu, and emerged as the son of one called aahuka. [12-1]
anyAsH cha yAH kAshyapasya eva bhAryA jyeshhThAM tu tAm Ahuka Atma putrIm |
chakAra tasmAt hi pitR^ishhvasA sA svasA cha kaMsasya babhUva devakI || 12.2||
Some of the wives of kashyapa also took birth as the daughers of this devaka, where the elder wife of kashyapa, namely devaki, took birth as a dear daughter of this devaka, where this devaki when became the wife of kamsa, she has become kamsa's paternal aunt as well as his sister too. [12-2]
Note: This is a long lineage. daksha prajaapati gave thirteen of his daughters as the wives of kashyapa prajaapati.
Names of daksha's
|4. anaayu, or anuaga||siddhaa-s|
|6. muni||apsarasa-s, and gandharvaa-s called maaneyaa-s|
|7. surasa||yakshaa-s, raakshasaa-s|
|8. ila||vR^iksha, lataa, tR^iNa - trees, plants, creepers - all flora|
|9. krodhavasha||lions, tigers - all carnivorous fauna|
|10. taamra||avians like eagles, birds, and horses, asses, camels etc|
|11. kapila, or, surabhi||go gaNa - cows and cattle|
|12. vinata||anuuru, garuDa|
Among them 1] aditi took birth as devaki; 2] surabhi took birth as lady rohiNi, the daughter of baahliika king; 3] diti took birth as kaashi king's daughter; 4] danu took birth as the daughter of king of karaviira desha. teShaam svasaaraH saptaassan....vasudeva uvaaha taaH - cf bhaagavata 9-24-22, 24 etc. Thus vasudeva, who is a transfiguration of kashyapa, married six more wives, apart from these four cited above. Because vasudeva is the incarnation of kashyapa kR^iShNa chose him as his father on earth.
sa eva aditiH vasudevasya dattA tasyA rathaM maN^gaLaM kaMsa eva |
saMyApayAmAsa tadA hi vAyuH jagAda vAkyaM gagana sthitaH amum || 12.3||
aditi when given in marriage to vasudeva, kamsa himself drove their auspicious marriage-chariot while sending his sister for a happy married life. But on their way, vaayudeva, airgod, spoke these damming words from firmament addressing kamsa. [12-3]
Note: aachaarya is saying that ‘aditi’ is given to vasudeva in marriage, instead of naming her as devaki. It appears as a stylo [like typo] of aachaarya, isn’t it? Not so. aachaarya is indicating the puurva-janma-vRittaanta of vasudeva-devaki, where there is no difference between aditi and devaki.
vinA aparAdhaM na tato garIyasaH na mAtulaH vadhyatAm iti vishhNoH|
lokasya dharma ananu vartataH ataH pitroH virodha artham uvAcha vAyuH || 12.4||
Note: Why should vaayudeva speak distasteful words to kamsa that cause a rift between kamsa and devaki-vasudeva? That is answered in this stanza.
Eliminating his own mother’s brother, namely kamsa, without his wrongdoing, will be unscrupulous for kriShNa. kR^iShNa values his father more than himself. So, kamsa is needed to have a rift with vasudeva, to become eligible for elimination at the hand of kR^iShNa. In order to create a rift between kamsa and vasudeva, airgod, vaayudeva, spoke unpalatable words to kamsa.
Note: Who is this vaayudeva to cause a rift in the family of devaki-vasudeva-kamsa? Then it is said, because vaayudeva is a staunch follower of mahAviShNu, he has to interfere in order to obliterate the blame on the head of kRiShNa in eliminating his own ‘maama’ maternal uncle kamsa.
mR^ityuH tava asyA bhavitA ashhTamaH suto
mUDha [hè muuDha] iti cha uktaH jagR^ihe kR^ipANAm|
putrAn samarpya asya cha shUraH sUnuH
vimochya tAM tat sahito gR^ihaM yayau || 12.5||
Airgod said to kamsa, “oh, stupid kamsa, eighth son of this devaki is your death...” whereupon kamsa drew his sword. Then, vasudeva, the son of shuura, giving away the sons of devaki to kamsa, releasing devaki from the restraint of kamsa, headed towards his own house. [12-5]
Note: putraan samarpya – gave away the sons of devaki – they are yet to take birth, then how vasudeva ‘gave them away...’ Giving a word itself is a fait accompli and physical handing over of sons need not be reiterated.
shhaT kanyakAH cha avara jA gR^ihItaH tena eva tAbhiH cha mumoda shUrajaH|
bAhlIka putrI cha purA gR^ihItA purA asya bhAryA surabhiH tu rohiNI || 12.6
And later vasudeva, who is the son of shuura, married six younger sisters of devaki. Prior to his marriage with these six sisters of devaki, and even prior to his marrying devaki, vasudeva married rohiNi, the daughter of the king of baahliika, and who in her earlier birth is surabhi, who was then the wife of kashyapa. [12-6]
rAj~naH cha kAshii prabhavasya kanyAM sa putrikA putraka dharmataH avahat|
kanyAM tathA karavIra iishvarasya dharmeNa tena eva ditiM danuM purA || 12.7
Lady diti, who is the wife of kshyapa in earlier times emerged as the daughter of the king of kaashi, while lady danu, another wife of kashyapa emerged as the daughter of the king of karaviira province. vasudeva married these two undr an obligation called – putrika-putraka dharma – daughter’s son is thy son. [12-7]
Note: putrika-putrattvam is explained at 11-7. Under this pact, vasudeva gave his sons, paunDraka-vasudeva and sR^igaala-vaasudeva, to their maternal grandfathers. Where paunDraka- vasudeva is the son of vasudeva from the daughter of the king of kaashi, while sR^igaala-vaasudeva is the son of vasudeva from the daughter of king of karaviira province.
yaH manyate vishhNuH eva aham, iti asau pApo venaH, pauNDrako vAsudevaH|
jAtaH punaH shUrajAt kAshi jAyAM na anyo matto vishhNuH astIti vAdI || 12.8
He who asserts that he alone is ‘viShNu’ and altercate that there exists no ‘viShNu’ other himself is this paunDraka-vasudeva, who in his earlier birth is a malefactor called vena. His is ‘aham-brahma-tattva...’ I-the-absolute concept.
dhundhuH hataH yaH hariNA madhoH suta AsIt sutAyAM karavIra iishvarasya |
sR^igAla nAmA vAsudevo atha devakIm udUhya shauriH na yayAv ubhe te || 12.9
Once shriihari eliminated a daitya, called dundhu, the son of another daitya called madhu. That daitya dundhu took birth as sR^igaala-vaasudeva, as the son of vasudeva and the daughter of the king of kaashi. Because sR^igaala-vaasudeva is the son of vasudeva, the title ‘vasudeva’ is tagged to him and he is therefore called sR^igaala-vaasudeva. So also paunDraka-vasudeva. And vasudeva married devaki after the births of paunDraka-vasudeva and sR^igaala-vaasudeva. vasudva never met the mothers of paunDraka-vasudeva and sR^igaala-vaasudeva after his marrying devaki. [12-9]
tataH tu tau vR^ishhNi shatrU babhUvatur jyeshhThau sutau shUra sutasya nityam |
anyAsu cha prApa sutAn udArAn deva avatArAn vasudevo akhilaj~naH || 12.10
As such, the elder sons of vasudeva, namely paunDraka-vasudeva and sR^igaala-vaasudeva, have become enemies of yadu dynasty, forevermore. The reason for this is nothing but vasudeva’s slighting their mothers. But, the all-knowing vasudeva begot best sons with the anima of gods in other wives. [12-10]
ye ye hi devAH pR^ithivIM gataaH te sarve shishhyAH satyavatI sutasya |
vishhNuj~nAnaM prApya sarve.akhilaj~nAstasmAd yathAyogyatayA babhUvuH || 12.11
All of those that sprang up from gods have become the disciples of the son of satyavathi, namely vedavyaasa, and thus became all- discerning individuals on obtaining knowledge about viShNu-mahima – transcendence of mahAviShNu from vedavyaasa. [12-11]
marIchi jAH shhaN munayo babhUvuH te devakaM prAhasan kArshhya hetoH |
tat shApataH kAlanemi prasUtA avadhyata arthaM tapa eva chakruH || 12.12
There used to be six sages, known as ShaDgarbha-s, who are the sons of a sage called mariichi. These six sages have once made fun of the atrophied body of a sage called devala, till the extent of that sage devala’s cursing these six mocking sages. Thereby these six sages had to emerge as the six sons of one called kaalanemi. And these six accursed sage have performed ascesis praying brahma. [12-12]
Note: kaalanemi is the son of daity hiraNyaaksha, the brother of hiraNyakashipu in the demoniac brother pair of hiraNyaaksha- hiraNyakashipu.
dhAtA prAdAt varam eshhAM tathaiva shashApa tAn xmA taLe sambhavadhvam |
tatra sva taato bhavatAM nihante iti Atma anyato vara lipsUn hiraNyaH || 12.13
brahma gave the boon of unkillabilty to those six who performed ascesis. But, hiraNyakashipu, the elder brother of their father kaalanemi, cursed six of them saying, “take birth on earth where your own father will kill each of you...” [12-13]
Note: How is that hiraNyakashipu cursed his brother’s sons, while he himself once prayed for brahma and got boons? This is what is called aasurii-bhaava, demoniacal dogma. These asura-s or daitya-s perform ascesis in a most severe manner, and once boons are obtained, they go counter to their earlier believes, declaring themselves as gods, and expect all others to obey them – as said by this hiraNyakashipu in bhaagavata – mat anyo jagadiishvara kvaasau??? – bhaagavata 7th skanda, 8-13.
durgA tadA tAn bhagavat prachoditA prasvApayitvA prachakarshha kAyAt |
kramAt samAveshayat Ashu devakI garbha aashaye tAn nyahanat cha kaMsaH || 12.14
Then, initiated by shriihari, goddess durga made the six of those sons of kaalanemi to fall in deep sleep, retrieved their souls from those sleeping bodies, and placed those souls in the womb of devaki. Thus, kamsa killed six of his own sons. [12-14]
Note: brahma gave the boon of unkillability to the six sons of kaalanemi. Contrarily, hiraNyakashipu gave the curse to all the six to get death at the hand of their father. kaalanemi rebirthed as kamsa, and the sons of kaalanemi rebirthed as the sons of devaki – sons with the souls of the sons of kaalanemi, where their actual bodies are in the netherworld ruled by bali, the daitya. Goddess durga does these miraculous deeds – aghaTanaghaTanaa samvidhaanam. So, shriihari asked her to raise to his need. She had gone to paataala, made the sons of kaalanemi to sleep, extricated a single soul from a single individual, came to the place of devaki, placed that soul in her womb, so as to enable devaki to deliver a male child. Thus durga did for six times, devaki delivered six times, and kamsa killed six boys on six times. As and when kamsa killed a boy, durga used to take the soul of that boy to paatala, only to reenter into the sleeping ShaDanga, whereby all the six are alive. Thereby the boon of brahma has not come futile, nor the curse of hiraNyakashipu went wrong. All the six are unkillable, yet they are killed by their father.
devaki once insists on kR^iShNa to bring back all her sons and show them to her. kR^iShNa goes to paataala in a ‘can’t but’ situation and fetches all the six boys. devaki then breast-feeding all of them obtained her motherly satisfaction. Whether it is a curse or boon, separation of unification, all will happen according to the sport of shriihari – bhaa. pra etc
tadA muni indra saMyutaH sado vidhAtuH uttamam |
sa pANDuH Aptum aichchhata nyavArayaM cha te tadA || 12.15
At that time, viz., before kR^iShNa’s advent, and after devaki’s six sons are slain, here in shatashR^inga parvata, paaNDuraaja is with eminent sages. He expressed his desire to attain the abode of brahma with those sages. But the sages dissuaded him. [12-15]
yat artham eva jAyate pumAn hi tasya saH akR^iteH |
shubhAM gatiM na tu vrajet dhruvaM tataH nyavArayan || 12.16
Someone who took birth to perform certain function cannot return to the abode of the pious without performing it. It is true. Hence sages deterred paaNDu to leave. [12-16]
Note: Sages are well aware as to why paaNDuraaja took birth – kaaraNa janma. He took birth only to beget five paaNDava-s. But curse resisting his conjugation with wives has befallen. So he has to wait till his sons are born through another method.
pradhAna devatA janau niyoktum AtmanaH priyAm |
babhUva pANDuH eshha tat vinA na tasya sadgatiH || 12.17
paaNDu manifested only to entail his dear wife in ‘niyoga’ method of procreation, to beget important gods as sons, and without fulfillment of that precondition he has no salvation. [12-17]
ataH anyathA sutAn R^ite vrajanti sadgatiM narAH |
yathaiva dharmabhUshhaNo jagAma sandhyakA sutaH || 12.18
Though it is said that a man will not get proper salvation without giving birth to a son, it is possible to get that salvation even without sons, as has been obtained by one called sandhyaka, the son of dharmabhuuShaNa. [12-18]
Note: The episode of mohini-rukmaangada is referred here, suggesting that one can attain proper salvation by – ekaadashyaadi hari vrata diiksha etc, though he is sonless. Thus, the recourse now left to paaNDu, because he is forbidden to meet his wives, is to beget some divine personalities as sons, who in turn will be useful in the service of shriihari – deva kaarya saadhakaa putraa-s.
tadA kaliH cha rAxasA babhUvur indrajit mukhAH |
vichitravIrya nandana priya udare hi garbha gAH || 12.19
In the meanwhile, kali puruSha, and daitya-s like Indrajit et al have permeated into the womb of gaandhaari, the dear wife of the son of vichitraviirya, namely dhRitaraaShTa. [12-19]
tada asya saH anujaH ashR^iNot munIndra dUshhitaM [bhaaShitam] cha tat |
vichArya tu priyAm idaM jagAda vAsudeva dhIH || 12.20
Then on hearing from sages that his brother is a would-be father, paaNDu thought about his own predicament, and targetting shriihari in his mind of minds, spoke this to his wife kunti. [12-20]
Note: vaasudeva dhiiH – paaNDu means gnosis. So he gnosticized his thought and came to know that begetting divine children is a part of his becoming a servitor to shriihari.
yaH eva mat guNa adhikaH tataH sutaM samApnuhi |
sutaM vinA na nau gatiM shubhAM vadanti sAdhavaH || 12.21
“You beget a son from him who is superior to me in endowments... there is no salvation forr us without a son...” [12-21]
tat asya kR^ichchhrataH vachaH pR^ithA agrahIt jagAda cha |
mama asti deva vashyado manu uttamaH sutAptidaH || 12.22
na te surAn R^ite samaH sureshhu kechit eva cha |
ataH tava adhikaM suraM kam Ahvaye tvay Aj~nayA || 12.23
kunti felt embarassed at his afflictive words but replied him, “Of course, I know a mantra which yields a son by inviting a god... but you tell me as to which god I should invite, as none is a coequal to you... thus, only at your behest I will invite that god whom you think superior than you in his merit... [12-22, 23]
varaM samAshritA patiM vrajeta yA tato.adhamam |
na kAchidasti nishhkR^itirna bhartR^ilokamR^ichchhati || 12.24
“Even after her securing a best husband, if a woman enters into extramarital relations with someone with inferior than her husband, she will not go to higher worlds,... [12-24]
kR^ite purA surAH tathA sura aN^ganAH cha kevalam |
nimittataH api tAH kvachit na tAn vihAya remenire || 12.25
“Earlier in kR^ita yuga, gods or goddesses never delighted with other sex, even if they had dire necessity... [12-25]
mano vachaH sharIrataH yato hi tAH pativratAH |
anAdi kAlataH abhava.n tataH sa bhartR^ikAH sadA || 12.26
“Those ladies of kR^ita yuga, used to abide by heir husband-devoutness by their heart, speech and body and they went to higher worlds along with their husbands only... [12-26]
sva bhartR^ibhiH vimukti gAH saha eva tA bhavanti hi |
kR^itAntamApya cha apsaraH striyo babhUvur UrjitAH || 12.27
stanza 1: Because those ladies are pure by their heart, sppeech and body – trikaraNa shuddhi – they go to higher worlds...
stanza 2: At the fag end of kR^ita yuga, there emerged innuemerable females of easy virtue, namely apsara-s... [12-27]
Note: Why suddenly kunti talks about females of easy virtue, apsara-s? It is to remind that things went wrong from the fag end of kRita yuga, i.e., with theadvent if such females of easy virtue.
anAvR^itAH cha tAH tathA yatha ishhTa bhartR^ikAH sadA |
ataH tu tA na bhartR^ibhir vimuktimApuru ttamAm || 12.28
“The question getting the kind of salvation usually earmarked for husband-devout ladies does not arise in the case of these apsara-s, because they are unencumbered by a husband, and change husbands as they like... [12-28]
Note: Then these apsara-s have no salvation? Not so, they have salvation if they resort to kaama bhakti. kaama bnhaktyaa apsara striiNaam; anya eShaam naiva kaamataH – bhaagavata; jaartvena apasara striiNaam kaasaam cit it yogyataa.
sura striyo ati kAraNaiH yadA anyathA sthitAH tadA |
dur anvayAt su duHsahA vipat tato bhavishhyati || 12.29
“Even if a situation is demanding, it will be defeating the husband-devoutness of even celestial females, if they sidestep from the path of their marriage – sapta padi – whereby they have to face untold miseries... [12-29]
Note: We are told how taara and other celestial ladies had to encounter problems for their extramarital relations at the fag end of kRita yuga. sura striiNaam api, svapatibhyo adhika puruSha parigrahe api paraloka paripanthi, paapa abhaave api, aihika duHkhadaayaka paapam, patyuH, putraaNaam, maatuH cha bhavati – bhaava prakaasha.
Even if sin of non-attainment of higher worlds is not attached, if extramarital relatioins are undertaken, even by the celestial females – let alone humans, a threefold misery of social rejection ensues, to her, to her husband, and to her sons and daughters. Society calls her an easy womaan; her husband is called ‘a enuch’; her sons – bastards.
In these verses kunti’s not-so-strong words, akind of remonstrance about extramarital relations is evident. Her mind is dilly-dallying between her past experience with karNa’s birth, and the prospective births from niyoga. These topics will become understandably ultra-logical and scriptural howsoever they are translated. So they are not expanded. She finally concedes to paaNDu’s advise in next stanza.
ayuktamuktavA.nstato bhavA.nstathA.api te vachaH |
alaN^ghyameva me tato vadasva putradaM suram || 12.30
“What you have said seems to be unbefitting... however, I cannot disregard your words... so, tel me which son-according god I should invite...” [12-30]
iti iiritaH abravIt nR^ipaH na dharmato vinA bhuvaH |
nR^ipo abhiraxitA bhavet tat AhvayA ashu taM vibhum || 12.31
sa dharmajaH sudhArmiko bhavet hi sUnuH uttamaH |
iti iirite tayA yamaH samAhuto.agamad drutam || 12.32
When kunti said so, paaNDu replied her in this way, “a king without probity cannot rule the earth... so, invitte yamadharmaraaja... his son will be having high rectitude... [12-31, 32]
tataH cha sadya eva sA sushhAva putram uttamam |
yudhishhThiraM yamo hi sa prapeda Atma putratAm || 12.33
The minute she invited yama, kunti delivered yudhiShTira, endowed by the grace of yama. In fact, yamadharmaraaja himself obtained the sonship of kunti. [12-33]
Note: It appears that a point of controversy is peeping up. How could a fellow who has come to accord pregnancy to a woman has himself become her child? He should have spent some time with her and gone back to his naraka loka, instead of entering her womb. A husband becoming a son of his wife – ridiculous. If this is logicalised in this way, the reply is - ‘this sort of thinking itself is more ridiculous...’ Why applying human logic to these characters when we are dealing with gods, mantra-s, sadyo garbha-s and the like, which, time and again are said to be some supra-human activity. Visualising the characters in puraaNas and itihaasaa-s on par with humans, fully knowing that they are well-knit around gods and goddesses, is like eating in a woollen blanket, and yet counting wool on each and every morsel. There should be total rejection or acceptance of all such stuff, but there should be no partial rejection of them.
The problem is that there are no marriage manuals detailing the mechanics of niyoga or on sadyogaarbha-s. So, we assume human experience to these episodes and belittle those characters. Whether these births attract rakta+shukla prabha, dynamics of chromosomes, is the basic question. aachaarya discusses some aspects about the birth-taking of gods to man-woman, while detailing kR^iShNa’s birth, in later verses.
Once, according to puraaNaa-s, the progeny was created only by dR^iShTi, sparsha, icCha – by sight, by touch, by wish. Bored at this artificial creation, daksha prajaapati sought the permission of brahma to engender by conjugation, and he started creating a lot of progeny through females. His own progeny like haryashva-s and shabalaashvaa-s went against this sort of engendering through conjugation at the instigation of sage naarada, who earbashed them against marriages etc. Then angering naarada, daksha engendered sixty daughters and gave them to others like, dharma, kashyapa, chandra, ariShTanemi et al. Then this maanasa-santaana – brainchildren have receded to backstage.
ni+yoga is non-yogic method, say some divine, or supramundane method. When gods and celestials touch the earth or earthlings, their goddity has gone and they are just like other earthlings. When a few drops of ocean are sprinkled on brahma, he cursed ocean to take birth as shantnu. Then who is going to curse yama or vaayu, or indra for their cuddling some humans?
Some said that niyoga is a levirate marriage - LEVIRATE (Lat. levir, a husband's brother), a custom, sometimes even a law, compelling a dead man's brother to marry his widow. While some said it as - copulation with a man preferably the younger brother of the deceased husband. While some other said – that the he rule niyoga is that which allowed the Queen Kunti to take different lovers. And also - Kunti, the mother of the Pandavas, begets her children through sambhoga... All the observations are in and around the 20mts act. Nothing more.
What god is he who does some pullups like humans, with out showing some fx-s? In fact, his mate is more godly in such situations, because she secures a 10-month pregnancy instantaneously – sadyaH garbha= sadyo garbha; delivers a child that instantaneously – sadyaH jaata= sadyo jaata, before the instantaneous exit of that god into thin air. Such Nescafe like children start walking instantaneously – like vyaasa, or pulverise boulders instantly – like bhiima et al. And we rip off all these fx-s, said in a single word ‘sadyaH’, and hang around the mating games.
0011140031 samgamya.saa.tu.dharmeNa.yoga.muurti.dhareNa.vai./ lebhe.putram. – mbh aadi
saa tu, dharmeNa sangamya, yoga muurti dhareNa putram lebhe...
“Then the handsome Kunti was united (in intercourse) with the god of justice in his spiritual form and obtained from him a son devoted to the good of all creatures...” – mark the bracket of KM Ganguli for the expression (intercourse), because sangamam is not always sexual intercourse – as in triveNi sangamam, saagara sangamam etc. The compound ‘yoga muurti dhareNa – is – yogena muurti dhareNa – one who assumed a form by his charismatic power – not necessarily yama dharma raaja, this attribute belongs to yudhiShTira even; she got a son who is the embodiment of dharma, by virtue of his charismatic power. There are some fx-s immediately on his birth – like some ashariira vaaNi naming this boy as yudhiShTira and predicting about this boy etc. Kings on earth are to be eradicated. So yama came to earth in this way.
That puraaNic concept of maanasa-santaana, engendering just by just dR^iShTi, sparsha, icCha – by sight, by touch, by wish, is to be applied here also to kunti’s children, which is in diminishing trend by her era. When bhiiShma can get icChaa mR^ityu, can’t yama get icCha janma? So, yama has not come to enjoy with kunti, but to become himself as her son. So also, vaayu, indra et al, to cause bhiima, arjuna et al. When it is said that sathyavati or vidura’s mother enjoyed vedavyaasa under similar situation, it is not physical enjoyment with a conceptual god, but it is a worshipful adoration of that personality who is going to become her son.
yame sute tu kuntitaH prajAta eva saubalI |
adahyateH iirShyayA chiraM babhaJNja garbham eva cha || 12.34
When yama took birth as the son of kunti, gaandhaari, the daughter of subala, simmering with enviousness, smote her belly which has a long time pregnancy. [12-34]
sva garbha pAtane kR^ite tayA jagAma keshavaH |
parAshara aatmajo nyadhAt ghaTeshhu tAn vibhAgashaH || 12.35
vedavyaasa, the transfiguration of keshava, arrived there when gaandhaari caused abortion by smiting her belly, and he divided that foetus, and kept each piece in a pot filled with ghee. [12-35]
Note: Then gaandhaari asks vyaasa to accord a girl. So vyaasa divided that foetus into 101 parts, where 100 parts resulted as duryodhana and other boys, while 101 became dushshala, a girl. gaandhaari has caused abortion to her own pregnancy in the first instance, yet asking for a girl – is the oddity here. She must be aware that antagonists are entering her womb, hence she forcibly made the womb to fall. But when the birth of he children is immanent, she prayed for at least a girl, where girls cannot be an outright antagonist. She is also be said to jealous of kunti. It is not because kunti is bearing a boy, but she is bearing a protagonist. So, her own principle ‘yato dharmaH tato jayaH’ worked and she ultimately got negative characters as her sons and daughter.
shatAtmanA vibheditAH shataM suyodhanAdayaH |
babhUvuranvahaM tataH shatottarA cha duHshaLA || 12.36
Form the foetus divided into hundred pieces, hundred of duryodhana and his brothers have emerged, while from the 101 piece a girl named dushshala has come up. [12-36]
Note: It is OK that vedavyaasa has so many skills in genetic engineering, but all resulted in producing all bad guys. Why did he do this? - deva kaarya siddhaye – as explained in next verse - to accomplish god’s mission of eliminating vice, where vice too need be created by that god alone. It is his liila – sport.
sa deva kArya siddhaye raraxa garbham IshvaraH |
parAshara aatma jaH prabhuH vichitravIrya ja udbhavam || 12.37
To accomplish the mission of god, vedavyaasa protected the foetus from the son of vichitraviirya. [12-37]
Note: The pregnancy is an outcome from dhRitaraaShTa, where gaandhaari is not blameable. kunti had no such pregnancy. Hers is a sadyo garbha.
kaliH suyodhano ajani prabhUta bAhu vIrya yuk |
pradhAna vAyu sannidheH bala adhikatvam asya tat || 12.38
And duryodhana took birth with an endless might and valour, who is none else than kali puruSha. The reason for duryodhana’s boundless might is the presence of quintessence of airgod, vaayudeva, in him. [12-38]
purA hi meru mUrdhani trivishhTapa aukasAM vachaH |
vasundharA taLa udbhava unmukhaM shrutaM diteH sutaiH || 12.39
tatastu te trilochanaM tapo balAt atoshhayan |
vR^itaH cha deva kaNTako hi avadhya eva sarvataH || 12.40
varAt umApateH tataH kaliH sa devaka NTakaH |
babhUva vajra kAya yuk suyodhano mahAbalaH || 12.41
Once daitya-s have overheard on Mt. Meru the discussions of gods who are about to descend on earth in incarnations. Then those daitya-s immediately undertook ascesis praying shiva for an unkillable entity who shall be an antagonist of gods. Pleased with their ascesis shiva granted it, and that entity is kali puraSha, in the form of diamond-bodied mighty duryodhana. [12-39, 40, 41]
avadhya eva sarvataH suyodhane samutthite |
ghR^ita abhipUrNa kumbhataH sa indrajit samutthitaH || 12.42
sa duHkhashAsano.abhavat tataH atikAya sambhavaH |
sa vai vikarNa uchyate tataH kharaH abhavat balI || 12.43
sa chitra senana naamakaH tathA apare cha rAxasAH |
babhUvuH ugra paurushhA vichitravIrya ja aatmajAH || 12.44
After the advent of that unkillable entity, namely duryodhana, indrajit emerged from the ghee-filled vessels, as dushshaasana. Then the demon named as atikaaya took birth as vikarNa; mighty khara as chitrasena; and later, other mighty demons emerged as the other sons of dhRitaraaShTa. [12-42, 43, 44]
samasta doshha rUpiNaH sharIriNo hi te abhavan |
mR^ishhaa iti nAmataH hi yA babhUva duHshaLA asurI || 12.45
kuhU pravesha saMyutA yayA arjuneH vadhAya hi |
tapaH kR^itaM trishUline tato hi sA.atra jaj~nushhI || 12.46
All of those sons of dhRitaraaShTa are the embodiments of all adversarial traits. There used to be raakshasi named mR^iShaa. She undertook severe ascesis praying shiva to grant boon, by which she can become instrumental to eliminate abhimanyu, the son of arjuna. shiva is pleased with her ascesis and granted that boon. She therefore transmuted to become dushshala, the 101 female issue of dhRitaraaShTa. In her there is god named kuhuu, which god has affinity towards no-moon day – amaavaasya. [12-45, 46]
Note: naSTha indu kalaa kuhuu... bhaa. pra. kuhuu is also called siniivaali or amaavaasya. mR^iShaa means a+satya – calumny, vilification, and the demoness who has got affinity to it took birth as dushshala.
tayaa udito hi saindhavo babhUva kAraNaM vadhe |
sa kAlakeya dAnavaH tat artham Asa bhU taLe || 12.47
Because of the aspersive talk of dushshala, saindhava became the instrument to the death of abhimanyu, where that saindhava himself is the transmuted form of one among the kaalakeya daanavaa-s, took birth only to eliminate abhimanyu. [12-47]
tathA aasa nirR^ithA abhidho anujaH sa nirR^iteH abhUt |
sa nAsikA marut yuto yuyutsu nAmakaH kR^itI || 12.48
Likewise, one named as nirR^ithi, an younger brother of one who is also named nirR^iti, took transfiguration as yuyutsu, the son of dhRitaraaShTa. This yuyutsu is plussed with a windgod whose affinity is with nostrils, rather nasal wind. [12-48]
sa chA ambikeya vIrya jaH suyodhanAt anantaraH |
babhUva vaishya kanyaka udara udbhavo hari priyaH || 12.49
Though this yuyutsu is a direct offshoot of dhRitaraaShTa, born later to duryodhana, but mothered by a vaishya lady, he is an ardent adherer if shriihari. [12-49]
yudhishhThire jAta uvAcha pANDurbAhvoH balAt j~nAna balAt cha dharmaH |
raxyo anyathA nAsham upaiti tasmAt bala dvaya aaDhyaM prasuva aashu putram || 12.50
yaj~na adhiko hi ashvamedho manushhya dR^ishyeshhu tejassu adhiko hi bhAskaraH |
varNeshhu vipraH sakalaiH guNaiH varo deveshhu vAyuH purushhottama aadR^ite || 12.51
visheshhato api eshha pitaa eva me prabhuH vyAsa aatmanA vishhNuH ananta
ataH cha te shvashuro na eva yogyo dAtuM putraM vAyum upaihi tat prabhum || 12.52
After the birth of yudhiShTira, paaNDu spoke to kunti in this way, “dharma is to safeguarded by both physical and intellectual might... otherwise it gets ruined... so, give birth to a son who should be mighty by his physique as well by his intellect...
ashvamedha is the best among all vedic rituals... from the viewpoint of people sun is the highest in resplendence... among all classes of society braahamaNa-s are the best... and excepting shriihari, vaaudeva, airgod is the best among all gods...
The lord of all and Supreme Person, viShNu, is now in the incarnation of vedavyaasa, who incidentally is my father and your father-in-law... therefore, his becoming a donor of a son to you will become unbefitting... as such, seek for the grace of airgod, vaayudeva... [12-52]
iti iirite pR^ithayA.a.ahUta vAyu saMsparsha mAtrAt abhavat bala dvaye |
samo jagatya asti na yasya kashchit bhaktau cha vishhNoH bhagavat vashaH sutaH || 12.53
When paaNDu said this way kunti invited airgod, vaayudeva, and just by his touch a son has emerged who has no coequal in physical or intellectual might, further by his devotion to viShNu. This boy is bhiimassena. [12-53]
Note: mahaabhaarata itself says that there are some devata gaNaa-s who generate children just by their vaak – speech; dR^iSTi – seeing; sparsha – by touch; samsparsha – more than just touching; samgharShaNa - [maybe] colliding. -- bhaava prakaasha.
sa vAyuH eva abhavat atra bhIma nAmA bhR^itA mAH sakalA hi yasmin |
sa vishhNu ina iishena yutaH sadaa eva nAmnA seno bhImasenaH tataH asau || 12.54
He who has an all-encompassing education and who is the incarnation of vaayudeva, he is bhiimasena. [12-54]
Note: bhR^itA mAH sakalA - sakalA mAH= all sorts of, educations; yasmin bhR^itA- in whom they are abiding – he is bhiima. Then it should be ‘bhR^imaa’ – how it became’bhiima’? niruktatvaat R^i kaaratva varNa naashaH, ii kaaraakhyaa varNa aagamasheti bhaavaH – bha. praka. R^i in bhR^i goes away and ‘bha’ remains. When ‘ii’ kaara comes as suffix ‘bha’ becomes ‘bhii’.
Next ‘sena’ is given the meaning - inena prabhuNaa sahitaH – sena; sa + ina; ina = viShNu, saha= being with him – with viShNu; one who is always with viShNu – he is sena – modernday suffix of sen-s to names.
Third in the trayodaaharaNaa-s of achaarya – yuasmin sakalaaH maaH [where maaH = pramaaNaani]; bhR^itaaH [where bhR^itaa = purrNaaH]; in whom all pramaaNaa-s, pratyksha, anumaana, aagama, are replete.
tat janma mAtreNa dharA vidAritA shArdUla bhItA jananI karAt yadA |
papAta samchUrNita eva parvataH tena akhilo asau shatashR^iN^ga nAmA || 12.55||
Earth shattered as and when bhiimasena emerged. After ten days of his birth, a tiger frightened his mother kunti, and she let slip the baby boy from her arms. Then, bhiima fell down upon shatasRinga mountain, and that mountain is pulverised under his full brunt. [12-55]
tasmin prajAte rudhiraM prasusruvuH mahaa asurA vAhana sainya saMyutAH |
nR^ipAH cha tat paxa bhavAH samastAH tadA bhItA asurA rAxasAH cha || 12.56||
As soon as bhiima emerged, great asura-s together with their armies and vehicular animals, have vomited blood. The kings whose descent is from asura-s and raakshasaa-s are thus terrorised for vaayudeva’s coming into being as bheemasena. [12-56]
avarddhata atra eva vR^ikodaraH vane mudaM surANAm abhitaH pravarddhayan | [12-57 a]
And vR^ikodaraH, namely bhiimasena, burgeon there in that forest burgeoning the gladness of celestials. [12-67a]
Note: vR^ikodaraH = vR^ika + udaraH = wolf’s, one who has such a belly – lexically; in vaidic way it is - vR^iko naama mahad agni = there is a great fire called vR^ika; he who has such a great fire in his stomach; bahvanna bhasmiikaraNa shaalii – bahu annam bhasmiikaraNa shaktaH = one who can easily digest a great lot of food, like VR^ika fire, which fire burns down anything in pralaya kaala. Hence, it is an anvartha to bhiimasena which need not always be translated as ‘wolf-stomached fellow’, or whose belly is like that of a wolf in thinness, while his chest is broad... etc.
tadaiva sheshho hariNaH aaditaH avishat garbhaM sutAyA api devakasya || 12.57 b
sa tatra mAsa trayam ushhya durgayA apavAhito rohiNI garbhamAshu |
niyuktayA keshavena atha tatra sthitvA mAsAn sapta jAtaH pR^ithivyAm || 12.58||
sa nAmato baladevo balADhyo babhUva tasya anu janArdanaH prabhuH |
AvirbabhUva akhila sadguNaika pUrNaH sutAyAm iha devakasya || 12.59||
Before the advent of shriihari on earth, he ordered all gods to transmute and appear on earth. At that time, he also ordered aadi sheSha to appear on earth. Accordingly, aadisheSha entered and resided in the womb of devaki for three month, at which time goddess durga displaced him from the womb of devaki and placed him in the womb of rohiNi. Spending seven more months in that womb aadisheSha emerged as balaraama. [12-57b, 58, 59]
Note: durgaayaa pravaahito – by durga, made to flow out – aborted; abortion of seventh pregnancy to devaki – is just for ordinary people – as said in bhaagavata – visrambhito garbha iti pauraaH vichukrashuH – skanda 10, 2-15. Actually it is yoga maaya of hari thru durga devi.
yaH sat sukha j~nAna bala eka dehaH samasta doshha sparsha ujjhitaH sadA |
avyakta tat kAryamayo na yasya dehaH kutaH chit kva cha sa hi ajo hariH || 12.60||
He whose form is pure bliss, knowledge and might, who is beyond the touch of any blemish, who is the cause of avyakta, unmanifest, i.e., whose form never existed in any time, place and cause with a build of five-subtle elements, that shriihari is birthless... [12-60]
na shukla rakta prabhavaH asya kAyaH tathA api tat putratayaa uchyate mR^ishhA |
janasya mohAya sharIrataH asyA yadA virAsIt amala svarUpaH || 12.61||
His form as shriikR^iShNa has not emerged from the dynamics of chromosomes, but people meaninglessly call him as he is the ‘son of such and such parents...’, and the emergence of that immaculate shriihari as the son of devaki is only to enchant the commoners, thus they call him, ‘he is the son of devaki...’ [12-61]
Avishya pUrvaM vasudevam eva vivesha tasmAt R^itu kAla eva |
devIm uvAsa atra cha sapta mAsAn sa ardhAM tataH chA avirabhUt ajaH api || 12.62||
Although shriihari is birthless, he firstly tansfusing himself in the body of vasudeva, entered devaki in her season, and after abiding seven and half months in there, he manifested himself as shriiKRiShNa. [12-62]
yathA purA stambhata AvirAsIt ashukla raktaH api nR^isiMha rUpaH |
tathaiva kR^ishhNo api tathA api mAtApitR^i kramAt eva vimohayat ajaH || 12.63||
As to how birthless shriihari has emerged from a pillar as nara-simha in earlier times, so also he emerged now in the form of shriikRiShNa, devoid of the contact of x and y chrosmosmes. But depicting his emergence from so-and-so father through so-and-so mother, is only to hoodwink asura-s. [12-63]
pitR^ikramaM mohanArthaM sameti na tAvatA shuklato raktatashcha |
jAto.asya dehastviti darshanAya sashaN^khachakrAbjagadaH sa dR^ishhTaH || 12.64||
Only to play false with thickheaded taamasika-s he follows this paternity - the source of his being. In order to establish that he has not emerged owing to the dynamics of chromosomes, he emerged divulging his four arms holding conch, disc, mace and lotus. [12-64]
anekasUryAbhakirITayukto vidyutprabhe kuNDale dhAraya.nshcha |
pItAmbaro vanamAlI svanantasUryorudIptirdadR^ishe sukhArNavaH || 12.65||
And he whose crown vies with many, many suns in its resplendance, whose ear-drops rival with lightenings in sparkle, and who wears ochry silk cloth and a garand of ocimum leaves, [why these small tings...] who himself glitters like millions of suns, that embodiment called kRShNa appeared before devaki and vasudeva. [12-65]
Note: These stanzas vie with the stanzas of bhaagavata – tam adbhutam baalakam ambuja iikshaNam .... rochamaana vasudeva aikshata... etc proving no less skill of aachaarya than tht of vyaasa.
sa kaJNja yoni pramukhaiH suraiH stutaH pitrA cha mAtrA cha jagAda shUrajam |
nayasva mAM nanda gR^ihAn iti sma tato babhUva dvi bhujo janArdanaH || 12.66||
When extolled by brahma and other gods, by devaki and vasudeva as well, kR^iShNa said to vasudeva, “take me to the house of nandagopa and keep me there...’, and he came two-armed, viz. assumed the form of a just bon baby. [12-66]
tadaiva jAtA cha hareH anuj~nayA durga abhidhA shrIH anu nanda patnyAm |
tataH tam AdAya hariM yayau sa shUrAtmajo nanda gR^ihAn nishIthe || 12.67||
At that time goddess lakshmi, who otherwise is called as durga, took birth from the wife of nanda, just after the manifestation of kR^iShNa. Then, vasudeva took shriihari and started for nanda’s house in the dead of that night. [12-67]
saMsthApya taM tatra tathaiva kanyakAmAdAya tasmAt svagR^ihaM punaryayau |
hatvA svasurgarbhashhaTkaM krameNa matvA.ashhTamaM tatra jagAma kaMsaH || 12.68||
And on keeping kR^iShNa in the bed of the wife of nandagopa, duly taking the baby girl delivered by devaki into his arms, vasudeva returned to his prison. kamsa arrived at the prison deeming this delivery as eight, while he himself killed the first six babies of devaki. [12-68]
garbhaM devakyAM saptamaM menire hi lokAH sutaM [srutam] tu ashhTamaM tAM tataH saH
matvA hantuM pAdayoH sampragR^ihya sampothayAmAsa shilA taLe cha || 12.69||
Her seventh pregnancy is deemed to be a miscarriage by one and all, because yoga-maaya, viz., durga devi, extricated the three-month-old aadisheSha from her womb and placed him in rohiNi’s womb, and hence this is her eight pregnancy, and hence to eliminate this particular eight birth, kamsa caught the baby by its feet and started to hit her on a stone. [12-69]
sA tat hastAt xipram utpatya devI khe adR^ishyati eva ashhTa bhujA samagrA |
brahmAdibhiH pUjyamAnA samagraiH ati adbhuta aakAravatI hari priyA || 12.70||
uvAcha cha aaryA tava mR^ityuH atra kvachit prajAto hi vR^ithaa eva pApa |
anAgasIM mAM vinihantum ichchhasi ashakya kArye tava cha udyamo ayam || 12.71||
uktvaa iti kaMsaM punaH eva devakI talpe ashayat bAla rUpa eva durgA |
na aj~nAsishhuH tAm atha kechan na atra R^ite hi mAtA pitarau guNADhyAm || 12.72||
Even as kamsa started to hit the baby on stone, that baby zoomed to sky from the hands of kamsa assuming her original form with eight arms – namely durga devi. She then said, “oh, sinner kamsa... it is unavailing for you to eliminate an uneliminable entity like me... but, know that your eliminator has already emerged on earth...” Saying so she again assumed the form of bay girl and snuggled herself in the flank of devaki. Nobody is aware of that assiduous goddess, excepting for her mother and father, viz., devaki-vasudeva. [12-70, 71, 72]
shrutvA tayaa uktaM tu tadaiva kaMsaH pashchAttApAt vasudevaM sa bhAryam |
prasAdayAmAsa punaH punaH cha vihAya kopaM cha tam UchatuH tau |
sukhasya duHkhasya cha rAja siMha na anyaH kartA vAsudevAt iti sma || 12.73||
On hearing what durga said kamsa repented much, and consoled devaki-vasudeva time and again, discarding his angry mood. And devki-vasudeva replied him saying, “one who causes agony or ecstacy is none but vaasudeva...” [12-73]
Note: Just now kamsa tried to kill a baby of his own sister, yet he pacifies her? Is kamsa a split personality. Yes he is. In him jiiva-dwayam, split-souls, are wrking. And the soul that just now pacified devaki is that of a sage called bhR^igu, and the soul that drove him to destroy just born babies is that of a demon called kaalanemi. Good and bad reside together.
AnIya kaMso.atha gR^ihe svamantriNaH provAcha kanyAvachanaM samastam |
shrutvA cha te prochuratyantapApAH kAryaM bAlAnAM nidhanaM sarvasho.api || 12.74||
tatheti tA.nstatra niyujya kaMso gR^ihaM svakIyaM pravivesha pApaH |
cherushcha te bAlavadhe sadodyatA hiMsAvihArAH satataM svabhAvataH || 12.75||
kamsa summoned all his ministers and informed them about the prediction the girl-to-be-killed had made. Because his ministers are also the birds-of-the-sin- feather they advised kamsa to eliminate babies as and when they are born. kamsa agreed to it and left for his palace-chambers. And his ministers are naturally cruel at any given time, they started killing just born babies. [12-74, 75]
atha prabhAte shayane shayAnam apashyatAm abja dala aayata axam |
kR^ishhNaM yashodA cha tathaiva nanda Ananda sAndra aakR^itim aprameyam || 12.76||
Then in the morning, after the night in which vasudeva exchanged babies, yashoda-nanda have seen broad-lotus-eyed kR^iShNa reclining the bed, whose form is pure bliss and who has inestimable characteristics. [12-74, 75]
menAta etau nija putram enaM srashhTAram abja prabhavasya cha iisham |
mahaa utsavAt pUrNa manAH cha nando viprebhyo adAt laxa amitAH tadA gAH || 12.77||
yashoda and nanda rejoiced much for the birth of their son, and nanda gifted millions of cows to brahmaNa-s in his ecstacy for becoming a father of a son, albeit the lord of all, the creator of a creator, viz., he who created the four-faced brahma, a creator of whole world - where that brahma emerged from a lotus, which lotus in turn has emerged from the naval of shriihari - that supreme creator shriihari created himself as their son. [12-77]
suvarNaratnAmbarabhUshhaNAnAM bahUni gojIvigaNAdhinAthaH |
prAdAdathopAyanapANayastaM gopA yashodAM cha mudA striyo.agaman || 12.78||
nanda, the king of cowherds, has gifted many herds of cows, embellished with golden ornaments studded with gems, and covered with variegated cloths, as token of festivity. [12-78]
gateshhu tatraiva dineshhu keshhuchit jagAma kaMsasya gR^ihaM sa nandaH |
pUrvaM hi nandaH sa karaM hi dAtuM bR^ihat vanAt nissR^itaH prApa kR^ishhNAm || 12.79||
saha aaagatA tena tadA yashodA sushhAva durgAm atha tatra shauriH |
nidhAya kR^ishhNaM pratigR^ihya kanyakAM gR^ihaM yayau nanda uvAsa tatra || 12.80||
nirushhya tasmin yamunA taTe sa mAsaM yayau drashhTu kAmo narendram |
rAj~ne atha taM datta karaM dadarsha shUra Atmajo vAkyam uvAcha cha enam || 12.81||
Previously nanda started to city mathura from his place called bRihat-vanam, to pay tax to kamsa. yashoda also accompanied him on this trip. But, while they were on the bank of river yamuna, yashoda delivered durga, the yoga-maaya, whom vasudeva exchanged with kR^iShNa, in the very night. Because nanda is blessed with a boy kR^iShNa, he stayed there itself, on the bank of river yamuna, for about a month enjoying the proximity of his son, and then proceeded to mathura to pay tax to kamsa. After paying tax in mathura, nanda also called on vasudeva. [12-79, 80, 81]
yAhi utpAtAH santi tatra iti udIritaH jagAma shIghraM yamunAM sa nandaH |
rAtrau evA agachchhamAne tu nande kaMsasya dhAtrI tu jagAma goshhTham || 12.82||
“Go to your place at once... some untoward conditions are cropping up there...” so said vasudeva to nanda with some intuition, and nanda stopping that courtesy visit proceeded to the banks of yamuna river, where yashoda is with the child. While nanda tried to reach the banks of yamuna by that night itself, a governess of kamsa, namely puutana, reached the sheds of cows – namely the camp of nanda on the banks of yamuna. [12-82]
sA pUtanA nAma nijasvarUpamAchchhAdya rAtrau shubharUpavachcha |
vivesha nandasya gR^ihaM bR^ihadvanaprAnte hi mArge rachitaM prayANe || 12.83||
And that governess of kamsa, named puutana, assuming the form of a tender-hearted woman, entered the tent arranged by nanda for yashoda and kR^iShNa on the bank of yamuna, which is halfway between bRihatvana and mathura. [12-83]
tIre bhaginyAH tu yamasya vastra gR^ihe shayAnaM purushhottamaM tam |
jagrAha mAtrA tu yashodayA tayA nidrAyujA prexyamANA shubha iva || 12.84||
tanmAyayA dharshhitA nidrayA cha nyavArayannaiva hi nandajAyA |
tayA pradattaM stanamIshitA.asubhiH papau sahaivA.ashu janArdanaH prabhuH || 12.85||
mR^itA svarUpeNa subhIshhaNena papAta sA vyApya vanaM samastam |
tadA.a.agamannandagopo.api tatra dR^ishhTvA cha sarve.apyabhavan suvismitAH || 12.86||
And puutana, who in her assumed form of gentle lady is looking more salutary than sleeping yashoda, took kR^iShNa into her arms, who is sleeping in that tent. Because yashoda is put to sleep by puutana’s illusory tricks, she did not object puutanaa’s taking the boy from her bedside. Then puutana breastfed that boy kR^iShNa, while that boy sucked her lives along with milk. puutana fell dead with an enormous body of her original form, covering much of the area of bRihadvana. Just then nanda arrived from mathura and saw this along with all others available there, to their astonishment. [12-84, 85, 86]
sA tATakA cha uurvashii sampravishhTA kR^ishhNa avadhyAnAt nirayaM jagAma |
sA tUrvashI kR^ishhNa bhukta stanena pUtA svargaM prayayau tat xaNena || 12.87||
That puutana is a transfiguration of two personalities, one that of demoness taaTaka of raamaayaNa, and the other is that of apsara uurvashi. When puutana is dead, her sin of trying to kill kR^iShNa led her to hell, while uurvashi tarrying in puutana is released from puutana and went to heaven, because she breastfed kR^iShNa, though in the form of puutana. [12-87]
sA tumburoH saN^gata Avivesha raxaH tanuM shApato vittapasya |
kR^ishhNa sparshAt shuddha rUpA punaH divaM yayau tushhTe kim alabhyaM rameshe || 12.88||
Earlier kubera cursed uurvashi to inhabit in a body of demoness, when she flirted with another gandharva, namely tumburu. And now, just on touching the body of kR^iShNa she is released from her incarceration and went to heaven. If god is willing, what is it unattainable? [12-88]
yadA.a.apa devaH chaturaH sa mAsA.n tatt upanishhkrAmaNam asya chA.asIt |
janmarxam asmin dina eva chA asIt prAtaH kiJNchit tatra mahotsavo.abhavat || 12.89||
kR^iShNa is now four months old and a function called niShkramaNa is due. niShkramaNa means going out. Infant’s first outing from the house. Infant will be taken to his maternal uncle’s house, or to some temple etc as first outing. Till then he is unmoved from house for security reasons. On that day his birth star rohiNi is there marginally. And a great festivity is hosted on that day. [12-89]
tadA shayAnaH shakaTasya so.adhaH padA.axipat taM ditijaM nihantum |
anaH samAvishya diteH suto.asau sthitaH pratIpAya hareH supApaH || 12.90||
On that day kR^iShNa slept under a cart, and kicked that cart in order to eliminate a demon who is his antagonist, and who who entered into the structure of cart. [12-90]
xipto.anasisthaH shakaTAxanAmA sa vishhNunetvA sahitaH papAta |
mamAra chA.ashu pratibhagnagAtro vyatyastachakrAxamabhUdanashcha || 12.91||
Getting the impact from the kick of kR^iShNa, a demon named shakaTa-aksha fell dead together with the cart, and splinterd are his body parts together with the parts of that cart. [12-91]
sasambhramAt taM pratigR^ihya shaN^kyA kR^ishhNaM yashodA dvija varya sUktibhiH |
sA snApayAmAsa nadItaTAt tadA samAgatA nanda vacho abhitarjitA || 12.92||
yashoda came running from riverbank, apprehensively took the boy into her arms, and purificatorily bathed him while braahmaNa-s uttered ghostbusting hymns – all the while half-listening the chides of nandagopa about ‘mothers taking care of infants’. [12-93]
hatvA tu taM kaMsa bhR^ityaM sa kR^ishhNaH shishye punaH shishuvat sarvashAstA |
evaM gopAn prINayan bAla keLI vinodato nyavasat tatra devaH || 12.93||
And that punisher of all, kR^iShNa, again slept like an infant after eliminating shakaTaasura, as if he is unperurbed by such an incident, or by the hue and cry raised by his parents and villagers. Thus, kR^iShNa resided there in the village of cowherds causing delight to cowherds. [12-93]
vivarddhamAne lokadR^ishhTyaiva kR^ishhNe pANDuH punaH prAha pR^ithAmidaM vachaH |
dharmishhTho nau sUnuragre babhUva baladvayajyeshhTha utAparashcha || 12.94||
yat eka eva ati bala upapanno bhavet tadA tena para avamarde |
pravartyamAne sva puraM hareyuH chauryAt pare tat dvayam atra yogyam || 12.95||
While kR^iShNa is growing thus, an ostensible growth becaue he has no worldly growth or decay, there paaNDu again spoke to kunti for more children. “First came the son rooted in righteousness, and next came one with might and wisodom... and if one son with might alone, or wisdom alone is there, enemies will grab away the kingdom, because that mighty son will always be engaged in battles... so, there shall be two sons endowed with both might and wisdom... i.e., one for safeguarding capital, the other for conducting battles... [12-94, 96]
shastra astra vit vIryavAn nau sutaH aanyaH bhavet devaM tAdR^isham AhvayAtaH |
sheshhaH tava bhrAtR^i suto abhijAtaH tasmAt na asau suta dAnaaya yogyaH || 12.96||
na vai suparNaH sutado nareshhu prajAyate vA asya yataH tathA.a.aj~nA |
kR^itA purA hariNA shaN^karaH tu krodha aatmakaH pAlane naiva yogyaH || 12.97||
ataH mahendro balavAn anantaraH teshhAM samAhvAnam iha arhati svarAT |
iti iiritA sA.a.ahvayat Ashu vAsavaM tataH prajaj~ne svayam eva shakraH || 12.98||
“Let there be another son to us who is an expert in weapons and missiles... invite such a god who gives such a son... it will be unbecoming for aadishSha to accord a son to you, because he emerged as the son of your brother...[ i.e., sheSha emerged as balaraama, the son of vasudeva where vasudeva is the brother of kunti.] shriihari once bade garuDa to not to take human incarnation, so he does not emerge as our son. And shankara is an ireful entity thus not-so-fit for kingship... and after these divinities, only mahendra is worthy for invitation as he is mighty entity with the traits of a ruler... hence, invite indra for bestowal of a son...” When paaNDu said so, kunti invited indra with the hymn given by duurvaasa, and indra himself emerged as the son of kunti – namely arjuna. [12-96, 97, 98]
sa cha arjuno nAma nara aMsha yuktaH
vishhNu AveshI balavAn astra vettA |
rUpyanyaH syAt sUnuH iti uchyamAnA
bhartrA kuntI na iti taM prAha dharmAt || 12.99||
He is arjuna containing the anima, sage nara, one from the pair of nara-naaraayaNa, as well as the dash of viShNu. Eager to get more sons, paaNDu asked kunti, ‘cherish one more son with charming beauty...’ But, kunti said ‘no’ to him, from the viewpoint of dharma. [12-99]
Note: The problem with ‘niyoga’ method : mahat kaaryam vinaa, putraartham para puruSha sambandhaH, anartha kaari, iti evam dharma shaastra ukte; it will be self-ruinous to have relations with other men just for the sake of progeny, unless there is a great feat to be performed by that progeny. So, kunti said ‘no more children from me, please...’ She must be aware that arjuna is enough to undertake – mahat kaarya – great feat. But poor paaNDu wanted to have a ‘charming prince’. Does it mean bhiima and arjuna look ugly? Not so. Though bhiima and arjuna look charming, their comportment will hide their charm. So someone with mR^idu saundarya – softish in look, but fierce in action – is wanted. bhaavaprakaasha.
bR^ihaspatiH pUrvam abhUt dhareH padaM saMsevituM pavana aavesha yuktaH |
saH uddhavo nAma yadu pravIra jjAtaH vidvAn upagava nAmadheyAt || 12.100||
bR^ihaspati has already emerged on earth as aachaarya droNa, to render service to shriihari. But the same bR^ihaspati has again emerged along with the dash of vaayudeva, airgod, as the scholarly uddhava, from one of the heroes of yadu dynasty, called upagava. [12-100]
droNAtmakaM na ati tarAM sva sevakaM kuryAt hariH mAm iti bhUya eva |
sa uddhava aatmA avatatAra yAdaveshhu Asevana arthaM purushhottamasya || 12.101||
bR^ihaspati thought that, “shriihari will not take enough services from me, if I were to be in the mien of aacchaarya droNa, as such I have to emerge as uddhava in yaadava-s...” So, that sage has re-emerged as uddhava. [12-101]
Note: bR^ihaspati took this second emergence because shriihari will refuse to take servitude of droNa as he is brahmaNa, that too destined to take sides with kaurava-s. If he comes as uddhava, he can stay nearby baala krishna for more time; can delight himself in consuming the leftover food of that boy; can wear discarded garlands of that boy; can listen to his baby talk that appears as a babble to others –which, in fact, are the words from veda-s; can sing songs with him that appear as some crooning –which, in reality, is signing celestial songs; can dance with him that appears as capering of a baby – which itself is the dynamism of universe.
bR^ihaspateH eva sa sarva vidyA avApa mantrI nipuNaH sarva vettA |
varshha traye tat parataH sa sAtyakiH jaj~ne dine chekitAnaH cha tasmin || 12.102||
uddhava learned all his education from droNa, thus he became an expert in scriptures, and an all-knowing, thoughtful person. saatyaki and chekitaana have emerged on a same day, after three years of uddhava’s emergence. [12-102]
marutsu nAma pratibho yadushhu abhUt sa chekitAno hari sevana artham |
tadaiva jAto hR^idika aatmajo api varshha traye tat parato yudhishhThiraH || 12.103||
From among the windgods one named as pravaahaka transmuted as chekitaana and emerged in yaadava-s, only to seve shriihari. On that day alone, kR^itavarma emerged as the son of one called hR^idi. yudhiShTira emerged three years after the birth of kR^itavarma. [12-103]
tataH abdataH bhU bhara saMhR^itau
hareH aN^gatvam AptuM girisho ajanishhTa |
ashvatthAmA nAmataH ashva dhvaniM
sa yasmAt chakre jAyamAno mahAtmA || 12.104||
One year after the birth of yudhiShTira, wishing to take part in the mission of shriihari for reducing the burden of mother earth, shankara emerged as ashwaththaama. Because his voice at birth time was like that of horse-laugh, he is named as ashwaththaama. [12-104]
sa sarva vit balavAn astra vettA kR^ipa svasA
yAM droNa vIrya udbhavaH abhUt |
duryodhanaH tat chaturthe ahni jAtaH
tasya apare dyuH bhImasenaH sudhIraH || 12.105||
That ashwaththaama is an omniscient, expert in missilery, and took birth from the seed of droNa in the sister of kRipa, namely kRipi. On the fourth day of the emergence of ashwaththaama, duryodhana took birth. And valiant bhiimasena emerged on the next day of duryodhana’s birth. [12-106]
yadA sa mAsa dvitayI babhUva tadA rohiNyAM baladevo.abhijAtaH |
balI guNADhyaH sarva vedI ya eva sevA khinno laxmaNo agre hareH aabhUt || 12.106||
And the mighty, all-knowing, virtuous balaraama emerged as the son of rohiNi when bhiimasena is two months old, who is none else than lakshmaNa, the brother of raama, and who is fatigued to render more service to hari. [12-106]
Note: Is it proper to say that lakshmaNa is – sevaa khinno – fatigued to render more service, because he rendered more than what is required of a brother? There is a difference in declining its meaning in bhaava prakaasha and padaartha diipika.
lakshmaNa thought that he rendered service to raama for fourteen years, day in and day out, without a wink etc. Thus he is fatigued. And if lakshmana were to emerge as an younger brother oaf shriihari, even in Krishna’s incarnation, he may not be able to continue service with a fatigued body, which becomes a transgression of dharma, as such lakshamaNa, say aadishSha is dispirited and took birth as elder brother balaraama. bha. pra.
vaadiraaja says: god reduces superfluous merit accumulated by working over and beyond one’s own capacity. Hence, god is called ‘edhamaana dwiT’ in Rigveda. To lessen such superfluous merit god alone imbues such thinking – I have done enough, take it or leave it – to create a self-ruinous state. So sheSha emerged as elder brother, by which god can become a subservient to him, duly reducing the accumulated merit.
padaartha diipika says – sheSha is saddened because his service to raama is limited only for fourteen years, and again limited by this elder-brotherhood of kRiShNa. He wanted to be ever in the service of hari.
Next, why rohiNi delivered balaraama in gokula is explained.
yadA hi putrAn vinihantum etau sahaiva baddhau gati shR^iN^khalAyAm |
kaMsena apApau devakI shUraputrau viyojitAH shauri bhAryAH parAshcha || 12.107||
To eliminate the sinless children of devaki, kamsa enchained devaki and vasudeva together, so that they cxan move together. At that time kamsa lodged the other wives of vasudeva at different places. [12-107]
Note: Then, how the other wives of vasudeva became pregnant when thy are located at various place?
vinishchayArthaM devakIgarbhajAnAmanyA bhAryA dhR^itagarbhAH sa kaMsaH |
sthAnAntare prasavo yAvadAsAM saMsthApayAmAsa supApabuddhiH || 12.108||
As and when the wives of vasudeva became pregnant, and before the advancement of those pregnancies, kamsa shifted them to other places, in order to discriminate between the children of devaki from the others. [12-108]
hetoH etasmAt rohiNI nanda gehe prasUti arthaM sthApitA tena devI |
lebhe putraM gokule pUrNa chandra kAnta aananaM bala bhadraM su shubhram || 12.109||
For this reason only, rohiNi is lodged in the house of nandagopa, whereby she could deliver balabhadra whose countenance will be similar to glittering fullmoon. [12-109]
yadA tri mAsaH sa babhUva devaH tadA aavirAsIt purushhottamo ajaH |
[tau] kR^ishhNa sheshhau AptukAmau sutau hi tapaH chakrAte devakI shUraputrau || 12.110||
When balaraama is three months old, then the birthless and Supreme Person emerged, because devaki and vasudeva undertook ascesis to get balaraama and kRiShNa alone as their sons. [12-110]
vishhNvAveshI balavAn yo guNAdhikaH sa me sutaH syAditi rohiNI cha |
tepe tapo.ato harishuklakeshayutaH sheshho devakIrohiNIjaH || 12.111||
rohiNi also undertook ascesis to have a son with viShNu’s divine spark, might, and noble characteristics, whereby both rohiNi and devaki got balaraama betokening the silver hair of shriihari. [12-111]
Note: This is called the kesha avatarNa. One white hair pulled by hari has become balaraama and one black, as krishna. cf mbh aadi parva.
avarddhata asau hari shukla kesha samAveshI gokule rauhiNeyaH |
kR^ishhNo.api lIlA laLitAH pradarshayan bala dvitIyo ramayAmAsa goshhTham || 12.112||
And that rohiNi’s son balaraama, who has a vivacity of the silver hair of shriihari, flourished in the midst of cowherds, while kriShNa, seconded by balaraama, delighted those cowherds with his delightful childhood pranks. [12-112]
Note: In next verses, aachaarya is recapitulating some episodes of krishna liilaa-s.
sa prAkR^itaM shishumAtmAnamuchchairvijAnantyA mAturAdarshanAya |
vijR^imbhamANo.akhilamAtmasaMsthaM pradarshayAmAsa kadAchidIshaH || 12.113||
sA.aNDaM mahAbhUtamano.abhimAnamahatprakR^ityAvR^itamabjajAdibhiH |
suraiH shivetairnaradaityasaN^ghairyutaM dadarshAsya tanau yashodA || 12.114||
Though shriihari is the lord of all, devaki is firmly rooted, all the while, in a belief that she is handling her own little child. In order to mend her view, kRiShNa showed his cosmic form, just in his yawning mouth. In there she saw the source called avyakta, prakR^iti, twenty-four tattvaa-s together with gods who are an amalgam of these 23 tattvaa-s, namely brahma, rudra et al, humans, daitya-s, and why one and two, she has seen whole universe. [12-113, 114]
nyamIlayachchAxiNI bhItabhItA jugUha chA.atmAnamatho rameshaH |
vapuH svakIyaM sukhachitsvarUpaM pUrNaM satsu j~nApaya.nstaddhyadarshayat || 12.115||
But scared to see that cosmic form devakii closed her eyes. kRiShNa also withdrew from showing it to her. To let the good-natured people he will be showing his cosmic form, which is full and blissful. [12-115]
kadAchit taM lALayantI yashodA voDhuM nAshaknod bhUribhArAdhikArtA |
nidhAya taM bhUmitaLe svakarma yadA chakre daitya AgAt sughoraH || 12.116||
tR^iNAvarto nAmataH kaMsabhR^ityaH sR^ishhTvA.atyugraM chakravAtaH shishuM tam |
AdAyA.ayAdantarixaM sa tena shastaH kaNThagrAhasaMruddhavAyuH || 12.117||
papAta kR^ishhNena hataH shilAtaLe tR^iNAvartaH parvatodagradehaH |
suvismayaM chA.apuratho janAste tR^iNAvartaM vIxya saJNchUrNitAN^gam || 12.118||
At one time when kRiShNa is in the arms of devaki, he is gaining weight. Unable to carry his weight she placed him on ground and immersed in household work. Then a ghastly demon, a stooge of kamsa, named tRiNaavR^itta has come and creating a whirlwind took that boy skyward, where kRiShNa pressed his throat. And that demon who created unnecessary air, died of air-hunger, when his throat is throttled, and fell down with a mountainous physique, to the astonishment of all the villagers. [12-116, 117, 118]
akruddhyatAM keshavo.anugrahAya shubhaM svayogyAdadhikaM nihantum |
sa kruddhyatAM navanItAdi mR^ishhNa.nshchachAra devo nijasatsukhAmbudhiH || 12.119||
And kRiShNa, who is a an ocean of eternal bliss, used to snatch away butter, where butter illustrates the squeezed meaning one’s own meritorious actions. He used to exchange merit with that snatched butter to those who have not admonished him for the butterlifting, and to the admonishers, he used to curtail their over-accumulated merit. [12-119]
Note: navaniita choratvam is not exactly butter-thieving. While butter is the quintessence of milk, merit is the quintessence of humans that thrive on milk. navaniita choratvam is snatching away something that is accumulated beyond certain point. We accumulate merit by purchasing some puuja tickets in temples, thinking that we get a non-R.A.C ticket to heaven – but it is futile if heart pouring devotion is not there. If this accumulation, of either butter or merit, is by greed, it is snatchable – like the thinking of present day extremists. If somebody partakes it, it is meritorious.
When sage sharabhanga offers the merit of his ascesis to raama, raama tells him, ‘aham eva aahariShyaami...’ ‘I myself will snatch off all those merits, you need not dole them to me...’ God has a right to snatch.
yasminnabde bhAdrapade sa mAse siMhasthayorgururavyoH pareshaH |
udait tataH phAlgune phalguno.abhUd gate tato mAdravatI babhAshhe || 12.120||
In which year guru and suurya are there in simha raashi during bhaadrapada month, then all-controlling kRishna emerged. arjuna emerged in phaalguNa maasa, after bhaadrpada month. And after one year of these emergences, maadri, the co wife of kunti spoke this with paaNDu.
jAtAH sutAH te pravarAH pR^ithAyAm ekA anapatyA aham ataH prasAdAt |
tavaiva bhUyAsamahaM sutetA vidhatsva kuntIM mama mantra dAtrIm || 12.121||
maadri said to paaNDu, “you begot best progeny from kunti... and I remained childless... by your grace I too will become a mother... it bids fair on your part to ask kunti to accord that son-yielding mantra to me too...” [12-121]
iti iiritaH prAha pR^ithAM sa mAdryai dishasva mantraM suta daM varishhTham |
iti UchivAMsaM patim Aha yAdavI dadyAM tvat arthe tu sakR^it phalAya || 12.122||
Thus said, paaNDu in turn asked kunti to impart that hymn to maadri also. And kunti said to paaNDu, “I will definitely impart it to her for your sake, but it fructifies only for once....” [12-122]
uvAcha mAdryai suta daM manuM cha punaH phalaM te na bhavishhyati iti |
mantraM samAdAya cha madra putrI vyachintayat syAM nu kathaM dvi putrii || 12.123||
While imparting that son-yielding mantra to maadri, kunti again cautioned her saying, “once you beget a son, this hymn becomes ineffective for further use...” And maadri learning that hymn from kunti, even her forewarning, started think, “how I can become a mother of two, in a single spell...” [12-123]
Note: How is that this hymn functions only for once, whereas kunti got four fellows? Is it limited for use by a second user, maadri? Not so. maadri is not as shrewd as kunti. She submits herself to paaNDu, if he insists. This is proved by the demise of paaNDu. And this paaNDu is going on asking to get all the millions of gods as his children. In order to fend off paaNDu’s overenthusiasm, or that of maadri, kunti forewarned.
sadA aviyogau divijeshhu dasrau na cha etayoH nAma bhedaH kvachit hi |
ekA bhAryA sa etayoH api ushhA hi tat AyAtaH sakR^it AvartanAt dvau || 12.124||
maadri thought, “among celestials there are ashwini-twins, called drasu-s, i.e., one is drasu and the other is nasatya. These two are inseparably close, even they have a common wife called uSha... and if I chant the hymn for once, for one of them, both drasu and nasatya will come...” [12-124]
iti iixantyA aakAritau ashvinau tau shIghra prAptau putrakau tat prasUtau |
tau eva devau nakulaH pUrva jAtaH sahadevo aabhUt pashchimaH tau yamau cha || 12.125||
Thus, looking forward for ashwini twins, maadri chanted that hymn, and both the ashwini gods arrived and became her sons. One who emerged first is nakula, and the other who followed him is sahadeva. [12-125]
punaH manoH phalavattvAya mAdrI samprArthayAmAsa patiM tat uktA |
pR^itha avAdIt kuTilaa eshhA mat Aj~nAm R^ite devAnaam aahvayAmAsa dasrau || 12.126||
ataH virodhaM cha mat AtmajAnAM
kuryAt eshha iti eva bhItAM na mAM tvam |
niyoktum arhaH punaH eva rAjan
iti iirito asau virarAma xiti iishaH || 12.127||
Enthused with the emergence of two children, maadri again approached paaNDu, to persuade kunti to make that mantra further fruitful. paaNDu asked kunti for the same. But, kunti said to paaNDu, “This maadri seems to be biased... overstepping my stipulation, she invited two gods, namely drasu and nasatya, and got two sons... I fear that she might be thinking to cause harm to my sons, by getting more and more sons... hence, it is inapt of you to ask me to further extend that mantra to her... “ paaNDu remained silent. [12-126, 127]
Note: maadri appears to be witless woman. Why should she call for twins, whereby she got only two sons? She should have called 49 maruts, or 11 rudra-s, so that she would have got 49+11= 60 children. If sixty children are there, this craving for a second time use of mantra would have not occurred. aachaarya is clarifying this next verse.
visheshha nAmnaa eva samAhutaH sutAn dadyuH surA nitya visheshhitaM tayoH |
visheshha nAma api samAhvayat tau mantra aavR^ittiH nAma bhede.asya cha uktA || 12.128||
Gods gift sons only if they are invited with their particular names, and they do not respond if they are addressed in a general way. It will be futile if we say, “oh, gods, come and give me a son...” but it will be fruitful if we pinpoint and call with their - visheSha naama – particular name, like “oh, indra, accord a son to me; oh, airgod, bestow a son to me...”. The ‘havis’ in yaj~naa-s will be offered in this way only. [12-128]
Note: Here, ashwini-devata-twins have two names for each. Though we call them by two different names for our convenience, one as drasu and the other as nasatya, they will not concern themselves with our calling, as both will come. If drasu is called nasatya will accompany him, and if nasatya is called, drasu will accompany him - something like disjoined Siamese twins. So, drasu need not be called with one hymnal call, and nasatya with a second call. And maadri has a knack to call one god and get two sons. kunti’s refrain is in accordance with mahat kaaryam - mahat kaaryam vinaa, putraartham para puruSha sambandhaH, anartha kaari, iti evam dharma shaastra ukte.
yudhishhThirAdyeshhu chaturshhu vAyuH samAvishhTaH phalgune atho visheshhAt |
yudhishhThire saumya rUpeNa vishhTo vIreNa rUpeNa dhanaJNjaye.asau || 12.129||
All the four sons of kunti, dharmaja, bhiima, nakula, sahadeva, are already imbued with vaayudeva, airgod, and in the fifth, namely arjuna, the exuberance of the same vaayudeva is more. vaayudeva’s presence in yudhiShTira will be serene, whereas he is more stern in arjuna. [12-129]
shR^iN^gAra rUpaM kevalaM darshayAn aavivesha vAyuH ayam ajau pradhAnaH |
shR^iN^gAra kaivalyam abhIpsamAnaH pANDurhi putraM chakame chaturtham || 12.130||
shR^iN^gAra rUpo nakule visheshhAt sunIti rUpaH sahadevaM vivesha |
guNaiH samastaiH svayam eva vAyuH babhUva bhImo jagat AntarAtmA || 12.131||
Because paaNDu wanted a charming prince, and vaayudeva entered both nakula and sahadeva to reveal his charming form. Though both nakula and sahadeva are charming personalities, nakula has an edge on sahadeva in his charm. And the world-permeator vaayu emerged as bhiimasena with adorable traits. [12-30, 131]
su pullava aakAra tanuH hi komaLaH prAyo janaiH prochyate rUpa shAlI |
tataH sujAtaM vara vajra kAyau bhIma arjunaju api R^ite pANDuH aichchhat || 12.132||
aprAkR^itAnAM tu manoharaM yad rUpaM dvA triMshat laxaN upetamagryam |
tanmAruto nakule komaLAbha evaM vAyuH paJNcharUpo.atra chA.asIt || 12.133||
People call him who by his features looks like a tender leaf as a ‘charming prince’. Though bhiima and arjuna have such a look, people firstly notice only their diamond strong physiques, and reckon them with defiant lot. Hence, paaNDu wanted a boy who does not give an aggressive look, but who is cherishable by all. [12-132, 133]
atIta indrA eva te vishhNuH shhashhThAH pUrva indro asau yaj~nanAmA rameshaH |
sa vai kR^ishhNo vAyurH atha dvitIyaH sa bhImaseno dharma AsIt tR^itIyaH || 12.134||
yudhishhThiro asau atha na asatya dasrau kramAt tAu etau mAdra vatI sutau cha |
purandaraH shhashhTha uta atra saptamaH sa evaikaH phalguno hyeta indrAH || 12.135||
These paaNDava-s including viShNu are sis indra-s in previous eras. They are:
name of that god
who he is in
nasatya - one of ashwini twins
drasu - one of ashwini twins
Thus there are six indra-s and five paaNDava-s, because purandara is one who worked twice. Though ashwini-twins are one entity, they become two entities for functioning in two different ears, and their inseparability is for their basic form. [12-134, 135]
kramAt saMskArAn xatriyANAmavApya te.avarddhanta svatavaso mahitvanA |
sarve sarvaj~nAH sarvadharmopapannAH sarve bhaktAH keshave.atyantayuktAH || 12.136||
According to the attainment of proper age, their purificatory functions have been performed. all are omniscient, bounden by prescribed duties and functions, and all are adherents of the creator of brahma and rudra, namely viShNu. [12-136]
Thus, this is the 12th chapter of mahaabhaarata taatparya nirNaya of shrii aananda tiirtha, shriimanmadhvaachaarya.